Henry Morrison Flagler
Parents
The Flagler family moved from Bladen Germany to the New York colony. Solomon Flagler was Henry's
grandfather born May 8, 1760 and died Nov 24, 1839. His grandmother was Esther Elizabeth Ostrom (April 19,
1760 - Oct 30, 1813). She had 11 children one of whom was named Henry, Isaac's brother. They were married
in the Presbyterian church in Dutchess April 30, 1780.

1828 Sept 15 Isaac Flagler (22 April 1789 in Dutchess county, New York - July 23 1876)  and Elizabeth
Caldwell Harkness (1794 - 1861) of Geneva were married by Rev. Dr. Axtell at the Geneva Presbyterian. Rev.
Isaac Flagler was Pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Fayette, Seneca Co. In 1823 Rev. Isaac Flagler was the
pastor of the The First Church of Christ in Sidney. Elizabeth Harkness was the widow of Dr. Daniel Harkness of
Milan, Ohio. She had been previously married Hugh Morrison who also died. Her son Stephen Harkness was a
successful businessman. Rev Flagler was the widower of Ruth Delano Smith and Jane B. Ward. In 1836 Rev.
Flagler moved to Toledo Ohio. He was a supply pastor of the Toledo Presbyterian Church. He was a supply
pastor from the American Home Missionary Association. He was heavily involved in the temperance movement (in
1838 he was president of the Temperance Society) and the fight for racial equality. He was relieved from his
position for performing an interracial marriage. In August of 1844 Isaac Flagler returned to Hopewell, New York
and became the full time pastor of Hopewell Presbyterian.

The children of Rev. Isaac Flagler include: Mary Hester Flagler and Jane Augusta Flagler from his wife Jane B.
Ward. Anne Carolyn Flagler (called Carrie) from his marriage with Ruth Delano Smith.

Early Life
1830 January 2 Birth of Henry Morrison Flagler in Hopewell, New York. He was born in the Hopewell
Presbyterian church parsonage where his father had been the supply pastor for 1828 and baptized on August 22,
1830.  He was named after his uncle Henry and Elizabeth's first husband. He dropped out of school in the 8th
grade. He went west serving as a deck hand on
Erie Canal Boats. At the Erie Canal he encountered the new use
of cement in making the canal. In 1844 he arrived at Republic, Ohio to live with half-brother (in the store) and
worked at L. G. Harkness and Company. He arrived with a French coin, a nickel, and four pennies. (Flagler
would keep the French coin for the rest of his life.) 1849 moved to Bellevue for a job at Chapman, Harkness and
Company. His sister Jane Flagler North died in East Bloomfield, New York. 1852 he became a partner in
Harkness and Company a grain company. The company also ran a distillery.

Marriage #1
November 9, 1853 Henry married Mary Harkness On March 1, 1855 Jenny Louise Flagler was born (died
March 25, 1889). On June 18,1858 Carrie Flagler born (named after Henry's half-sister.) In 1861 Elizabeth
Chapman Harkness Flagler (mother) dies. On December 7, 1861 Carrie dies (Carrie is 3 year old.)

Business
1865 Flagler and York Salt Company went bust with salt production.  During the Civil War salt was essential
preparing meat for the military. So many people had invested in salt production that a bubble occurred which burst
on the conclusion of the war. Henry moved to Cleveland. In 1867 he partnered in Rockefeller, Andrews and
Flagler, a oil refinery company in Cleveland, Ohio. He bought a house on Euclid Ave with 9 rooms. 1870 January
11
Standard Oil Company incorporated as a joint stock company. Harry Harkness Flagler was born December 2,
1870  In July 1876 Isaac Flagler (father) dies. 1877 Standard Oil moves its headquarters to New York and the
Flagler family also moves to New York. Their city home was on the corner of Fifty-fourth Street at Fifth Avenue.  
In New York he renovates Satanstoe a 40 room summer home on 32 acres on Long Island sound. (This land was
made famous by a book by James Fenimore Cooper entitled
Satanstoe in 1845.) After all his renovations he
renamed his property Lawn Beach but the name Satanstoe stuck. Flagler bought a yacht called the
Columbia.
(He would also own over time  the sloop
Eclipse, the schooner Columbia and the yacht Alicia.)1878 Trip to
Jacksonville, Florida. On May 18, 1881
Jenny Louise married John Arthur Hinckley. This marriage would last 11
years, end in a charge of adultery and no children.  Mary Harkness Flagler died 1882. January 2Â  Standard Oil
Trust formed.

Marriage #2
1883 June 5 Married  Ida Alice Shourds (born July 4, 1848, died July 10,1930) at the Madison Avenue
Methodist Church in New York. Ida was Mary Harkness Flagler's nurse. Henry was 53 and Ida Alice Shourds a
former actress was 35. She had bright blue eyes, a profusion of red hair, and a violent and often uncontrollable
temper. 1883 December honeymoon to Florida through March 1, 1884. He originally stayed at the St. James
Hotel in Jacksonville. They toured to an unknown St. Augustine location 1885 after a trip up the St. Johns River to
Tocoi.  February 17 he returned to St. Augustine stayed at
San Marco Hotel witnessed the celebration of the
landing of
Ponce de Leon in March 1885. He met with San Marco builder James A. McGuire and San Marco
hotel manager
Osborn D. Seavey and made a new friend in Dr. Andrew Anderson (who would put together the
land for the Ponce de Leon Hotel.) He also talked to
Franklin Smith who convinced him of the value of cement
and coquina construction for the new hotels through his home
Villa Zorada.

Building of St. Augustine Hotels and other structures
1885  December 1 ground breaking on the Ponce de Leon Hotel 1887 May or June ground breaking for Alcazar
Hotel by hotels designed by the new firm of
John Carriere and Thomas Hastings. In 1887 May Henry Flagler sells
land to
Franklin Smith to build the Casa Monica 1887 May 30  Ponce de Leon finished 1887 since the winter
season is past hotel will open in 1888. October 6 Jenny Louise married
Frederick Hart Benedict 1888. January
10 Ponce de Leon (a 540 room hotel opened 1888.) April 20 Henry Flagler buys the
Casa Monica Hotel with all
furnishings, renamed the Cordova. 1888 May 22 Henry Flagler assembles women at Ponce de Leon to discuss
plans to build a
hospital. 1888 December 25 Alcazar Hotel opens 1889. February 9 Jennie Louise gives birth to a
baby girl 1889, Margery who dies a few hours after birth.  Jennie gets progressively worse and doctors
recommend a trip to Florida. March 25, 1889
Jennie Louise Benedict dies on  Elias C. Benedict's, her
father-in-law, yacht
Oneida outside the Charleston, South Carolina harbor as Henry Flagler awaits at the dock.
(This yacht would later become famous again as the "floating hospital" where
President Grover Cleveland had his
surgery for cancer in 1893.) Grace Methodist Episcopal Church, North was built by Flagler in part to pay for the
land acquired for the Alcazar Hotel.

In St. Augustine Henry Flagler also build laundry facilities, the
Casino attached to the Alcazar, the barracks for
workers, an
artist studio, the railway station, (which he moved from the grounds of the San Marco Hotel,) the
railway hospital, the YMCA, the jail, the rehab of the Cathedral with the addition of the tower after the Cathedral
burned, and the
Ancient City Baptist Church. He paved streets, built a water works to bring non-sulphur water to
the hotels,
a sewer system for the hotels, and an electric plant for the hotels.

In addition his hotels brought artists, musicians, bands for entertainment to St. Augustine. He started sports
entertainment such as tennis, golf, swimming, bicycling
, baseball and bowling.

Railroads
1890 January 20 completed bridge across the St. Johns River at Jacksonville  (see some companies owned by
Henry Flagler) 1890 March 1  
Alicia Hospital opened. 1890 March 16 Memorial Presbyterian Church dedicated
in memory of Jennie Louise Benedict. 1892 Charter from the State of Florida to allow building of railroad to
Miami 1892 Feb 3 Grand Ball  Hermitage Ball commemorative of Andrew Jackson. This would become the
highlight of Ida Alice's St. Augustine social life. 1892 May 28 incorporated the Florida Coast and Gulf Railway
Company. Flagler moves on March 1,1892 into
Kirkside (beside the church) Ida Alice's St. Augustine Mansion.
It was designed by
Carriere and Hastings and constructed by McGuire and McDonald. 1892 August Town of
West Palm Beach laid out. 1892 first trip by Mary Lilly to St. Augustine. 1893 The Jacksonville, St. Augustine &
Halifax; Indian River Ry. trademark of pineapple.

Hotels and Railroads Expand South
Opening on January 1, 1888 in Ormond Beach was the Ormond Hotel built by John Anderson of Portland Maine
and Joseph Price of Kentucky. An interest in the hotel was bought by Flagler in 1890. He fully purchased the hotel
and land in 1891 for $112,500. McGuire and McDonald were called on to expand and renovate the new hotel. It
was expanded eventually to 600 rooms. It was a massive wood structure. The hotel would later contain an 18 hole
golf course and would later be the scene of automobile racing. The railroad was extended to Daytona Beach.
Eventually the railroad main line would run from Jacksonville to Key West a distance of 522 miles. When the
railroad was finally completed it would contain 765 miles of tracks.

Palm Beach
In 1893 Flagler purchased 140 acres on the Atlantic Ocean in what would become Palm Beach. February 11,
1894 Royal Poinciana opened in West Palm Beach which was a 1150 room structure. It was the largest wooden
structure for its time in the world. 1894 March 22 railroad reaches Lake Worth (named after
General William
Worth of Seminole Indian War fame). 1894 March 31 Henry Flagler gives control of the Ponce de Leon, Alcazar
and Cordova hotels to Harry. April 2, 1894 the railroad was completed to West Palm Beach. 1894 April 5 Harry
Harkness Flagler marries Miss Anna Louis Lamont (May 12, 1870 - Dec 18, 1940)  in New York.

1895 work begins on the Palm Beach Inn which would later be called The Breakers. 1896 built the Palm Beach
Inn (renamed the Breakers Hotel in 1901) overlooking the Atlantic Ocean in Palm Beach.  The Palm Beach Inn
served as an entertainment center for the Royal Poinciana like the Alcazar to the Ponce de Leon Hotel. The Beach
Casino had a saltwater pool 150 feet by 50 feet and a gallery that surrounded the pool. It originally contained 250
guest rooms. In the new Breakers in 1901 the building was enlarged by McGuire and McDonald.  In 1903 a fire
destroyed the building which was reopened in 1904 as a even larger hotel.

September 13 railroad name changed to Florida East Coast Railway.  
James Ingraham who would be in charge of
the Model Land Company was responsible for the building and development of Palm Beach. Also in 1894 Flagler
buys the
St. Augustine Daily Herald and on August 30, 1899 he merges it with The St. Augustine Record.
Buying up newspapers throughout the state guaranteed Flagler a good press. In 1896 he built the port of Palm
Beach which included a 1000 foot pier into the ocean. In Palm Beach Flagler built the first 9 hole golf course in the
State of Florida.

Flagler Empire Goes Overseas
In 1898 Flagler bought the already famous Royal Victorian Hotel in Nassau. The hotel had existed from the time
of the American Civil War. McGuire and McDonald renovated the hotel with electricity, private bathrooms,
decorations to the structure and improvements to the grounds.

He then built the Colonial Hotel. The Colonial would be the more expensive stay. The hotel had 350 rooms and
could house 600 guests. The hotel included tennis courts, a greenhouse and a swimming pool.

He instituted a steamship line between Miami and Nassau delivering the mail, freight and boatloads of winter
tourists. Flagler formed the Florida East Coast Steamship company which ran boats to Nassau, Miami and Key
West.
Joseph R Parrott the Vice President of the FEC became the Vice President of the Steamship company. The
Northumberla
nd was the first steamship that traveled between Miami and Nassau. The Shelter Island was the
first ship to Key West but sunk on it's maiden's voyage. Th
e Biscayne traveled to Miami. Della was the second
boat to Miami. In 1898 with the creation of Flagler Miami the terminus of the railroad and the steamship line was
transferred to Miami. Th
e Monticello was the next boat chosen for the voyage to Nassau from Miami. The City
of Richmo
nd renamed the City of Key West was chosen for the Key West run. This boat had been earlier owned
by a St. Augustine resident and was used in filibustering efforts in Cuba. The Miami was launched on October 23,
1897. She held 125 passengers and had electric lights and fans throughout. In 1899 the Havana route was added
with th
e Cocoa and the Lincoln later renamed Martinque. In 1910 Flagler merged his boat line with Henry Plant
and created the Peninsular and Occidental Steamship Company (Flagler had been in business with
Henry Plant
since 1882 with a holding company for the Plants ships, railroads, and hotels.)

Founding of the City of Miami
Miami had seen many people before Flagler from the Native people through Pedro Menendez but until the Great
Freeze of December 24 and 28, 1894 and the February 6, 1895 freeze. Miami remained a backwater. In all
probability Flagler would have stopped his building in Palm Beach but in 1894 a freeze destroyed orange
production and economically damaged the state of Florida through loss of crops and tourists. Tuttle sent word to
Flagler that Miami was untouched by the freeze. Flagler sent Ingram to check the conditions. Flagler was sent a
package from
Julia Tuttle and Ingram from Miami that contained orange blossoms (or maybe lime blossoms)
untouched by the freeze.  With a economic deal from Tuttle Flagler continued the railroad and the hotels to Miami.
Flagler provided streets, a municipal water works and the railroad. Tuttle provided the land. The city of Miami
was born on July 26, 1896. April 15, 1896Â railroad completed to Miami. January 16, 1897 Royal Palm 450
rooms opens in Miami. The swimming pool was 114 ft long and 50 feet wide. James McDonald creates a summer
hotel called Hotel Biscayne to serve the Florida East Coast system (December 14, 1897). In 1897 Flagler also
leased the Russell House in Key West and renamed it the Hotel Key West.

Model Land Corporation
In 1896 Flagler created the Model Land Corporation to manage his vast land holdings. In all he received several
million acres of land from railroad holdings through the 1888 to 1910 period. These included 2,050,000 acres
from the State of Florida for encouraging railroad building in Florida. James Ingraham was the land commissioner
and general agent. The company hired agents (including FEC railroad agents). This corporation was based in St.
Augustine.

Alice goes insane
Alice starts collecting pictures of other peoples babies. She took a party of friends on one of her husband's yachts
and after a storm came up refused to return to shore. On March 23, 1897, rambling incoherently about her
impending marriage to the Czar of Russia.

At Devil's toe the doctors came to commit her. She locked herself in her room. She tried to have a maid get a
detective to observe the proceedings but a doctor was substituted for the detective. 1895 October 24 Alice
placed in the House of Dr. Choate.In 1899, the New York Supreme Court declared her insane and incompetent.   
Date uncertain - Henry has major argument with Harry.  Never talks to Harry again.

Alice was released from the House of Choate after six months. Once again at Devil's Toe she was dragged of to
an asylum after having "delusions." 1897 March 23 final commitment of Ida Alice.  The doctors based their case
on 3 points: 1. threats on the life of Henry Flagler. 2. She was approaching menopause. 3. She was addicted to a
Ouija board. May 24, 1900 Ida Alice moved to Pleasantville Sanitarium in Westchester County, N.Y. On
November 1, 1901 Justice Clark of the New York courts gave Dr. McDonald an increase to $25,000 per for Ida
Alice's care. She had her own private residence and other luxury
.

Marriage #3
1901 April 9 bill introduced to allow divorce on grounds of insanity in Florida. 1901  April 25 bill signed into law.
1901 August 13 divorce of Henry Flagler to Ida Alice Flagler granted in Florida with Judge Minor S. Jones ; Ex
Gov Fleming Mrs. Flagler's guardian. 1901 August 21 Henry Flagler engaged to Mary Lily Kenan (born June
14,     1867).  He was 71 she was 34. 1901 August 24 married Mary Lily Kenan - the bride received 1 million,
members of family 50,000 each bride 32 years old; married by Rev. Dr. Peyton H. Hoge, party consisted of
Flagler, Attorney Mr. Ashley, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Pick, Capt and Mrs. E. W. Lucas, Miss Hannah Bowles.  
They were married at Liberty Hall the family home at Kenansville near Wilmington, North Carolina. 1901 Sept. 15
Mary Harkness Flagler born (Harry's) (Sept 15, 1901 - 1967).  1902 Whitehall was finished. It was  designed by

Carrere and Hastings
the same architects who created the Ponce de Leon and Alcazar Hotels it was Henry's
wedding present to Mary. 1902 Hotel Continental opens in Atlantic Beach outside of Jacksonville. It was created
as a summer hotel. March 11, 1903 Elizabeth Lamont Flagler born (Harry's). June 9, 1903 the Breakers burns
and is rebuilt. March, 1904 William Kennan becomes a director in all Flagler corporations and a vice-president.
April 19, 1905  Florida Senate passes bill repealing "Flagler" divorce law - Gov Broward made the repeal one of
the issues of his campaign. In 1908 he resigned as Vice-President of Standard Oil. He had also served as
secretary and treasurer. Elizabeth Lamont Flagler, daughter of Harry Flagler was born March 11, 1908.  In 1909
Flagler opened the last of the hotels -- The Long Key Fishing Camp. It contained a 2 story lodge and a dozen
cottages. It would accommodate 100 guests. Jean Louise Flagler, daughter of Harry Flagler, was born on April
18, 1910.  In 1911 he resigned as a Director of Standard Oil
.

The Overseas Railroad
After Miami the next goal became extending the rail line to the city of Key West a town of 20,000. In 1902 the
surveys would start. At one point he would have 4,000 men working on the new extension. He would face 3
hurricanes and 128 miles of water and islands. In Florida he had already sent $30,000,000 with this section of the
railroad he would spend $20,000,000 more. In 1906 hurricane kills 130 workers. In 1906 work started on the 7
mile bridge. It would take 546 concrete piers to complete the bridge. In 1909 the second hurricane hit killing 40
workers. In 1910 the 3rd hurricane hit with one worker being killed. January 22, 1912 the first official train arrives
in Key West, Florida. Advertised time between New York and Havana was 2 nights. In 1915 the first of 3 car
carriers were completed. It was named the
Henry M Flagler.

Death of Henry Flagler
1913 January 15 Henry Flagler falls down stairs at Whitehall. 1913 May 20 Henry Flagler dies. Harry had been
telegraphed by Mary Lilly in New York that his father was dying. When Harry saw him it was too late and he was
heavily sedated and almost comatose. Her fear was that Harry (with
Dr. Anderson's help) would attempt a
reconciliation with Henry. There was no deathbed reunion.

Aftermath
1913 May 23 body lies in state at Ponce de Leon before removal to Memorial Presbyterian. 1916. Later the
bodies of Mary Harkness Flagler, Jennie Louise and her baby were buried with Henry Flagler in a alcove attached
to the church.

William Kenan became the family trustee of the Flagler estate and the leader of the Flagler empire. Flagler's death
had left Mary Lily as one of the richest women in the world.

Oct, 1913 Number 2 man
James R. Parrott dies.

November 16, 1916 Mary Lily married Robert Worth Bingham. 1917

June 27, 1917  Mary Lily dies with questions arising about cause of death.

1919
D. W. Griffiths buys Satanstoe and builds movie studio. It proves his undoing. Satanstoe will later burn to
the ground.

September 20, 1919 Continental Hotel burns

1922 Colonial burns. Property sold to British government.

1925 March 18  Breakers Hotel burns for the 2nd time rebuilt by Kenans management (currently still in operation)
(also Hotel Palm Beach caught fire from the Breakers).  Whitehall sold, becomes a hotel.

1925 Hotel Victoria sold.

1927 After the death of
Joseph Greaves, the Royal Palm does not reopen

1928 March 30 Harry Harkness Flagler becomes Chairperson of the The Philharmonic-Symphony Society of
New York, Inc.,

1928 Royal Poinciana condemned.

1930 July 10 Ida Alice dies. She died of a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 82.

1932 Alcazar Hotel Closes/Cordova closes.

1935 Royal Poinciana tore down.

1937 last piece of the Royal Palm destroyed.

September 1, 1935 huge hurricane washes away large parts of the Overseas railroad. FEC chooses not to rebuild.
Today significant portions of U.S. 1 contain the old cement trestles of the Overseas Railroad.

1950s Ormond Hotel sold to Robert Woodward.

1952 Death of Harry Flagler.

1957 Hotel Key West by then known as the Tropical Hotel burned.

1959 - Whitehall Hotel went out of business. Purchased by Mrs. Flagler Matthews.

1960 - February Henry Morrison Flagler Museum opened at Whitehall.

1961 - Edward Ball, trustee for the Alfred DuPont estate gains control of Florida East Coast Railway.

July 28, 1965 William Kenan dies.

1967 March Hotel Ponce de Leon closed. Flagler College is opened using Ponce de Leon Hotel and
Markland.

July, 1992 Ormond razed.

1999 December 10 Casa Monica reop
ens.
Library of Congress LC-DIG-ggbain-00214
Florida Memory - Key West -
Henry Morrison Flagler
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Henry Flagler
Florida Memory Project
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John D Rockefeller
Flagler Railway Car #91
Photo by T. L. Florek
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UNC Library
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Awakening of St Augustine by
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