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Names of Plain Indians Held at
Fort Marion
Some of the hardest parts of St. Augustine history are at the Castillo de San Marcos. The fort
was built primarily by Native Americans and Mexicans in the early 1st Spanish Period. The
1870s and 1880s saw the destruction of native life on the Great Plains and a way of life
passed into history. As bad as this solution was...it was the liberal solution. The school that
follows at Carlisle Indian Industrial School created by Richard Pratt is the liberal answer to
"A good Indian is a dead Indian."
by becoming a school to "kill the Indian and save the man." St. Augustine's Sarah Mather
and other women responded not only by becoming teachers of the captives but even going to
the Pine Ridge reservation and later to the
Carlisle Indian Industrial School.

The problems started with the accelerated policies of President Grant towards the Kiowa. In
1874 groups of Kiowas, Comanches, Cheyennes and Arapahos raided through Texas, Kansas,
Colorado and New Mexico. This would become known as the Red River War. General
Sherman as General of the Army received permission from President Grant to resolve the
problem. The Army was to pursue and punish all native people within or outside the
reservation. The decision had been made to send the ringleaders to Fort Marion in Florida.

In April of 1875 wagons were loaded from the Kiowa reservation to begin the journey to Fort
Marion. Special Order No. 88 instructed First Lieutenant R.H. Pratt, 10th Cavalry, to take
charge of and accompany the Indian prisoners from Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, to Ft. Marion,
St. Augustine, Florida. Special Order No. 88 further instructed Lt. Pratt to remain in charge of
these Indians until further orders were issued.

The difficulty of establishing a list is in part due to the family members that accompanied the
prisoners to Ft. Marion.

Kiowa:                               
Lone Wolf . Chief. Age 55. Wt. 162 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 9 1/2 inches. Headed a party of Kiowas killing two
buffalo hunters (Dudley and Wallace). Murdered E. P. Osborne, E. H. Barrett, Jackson Clark.
E-si-sim-ers.
                  
Woman Heart    
Chief. Participated in the murder of Jacob Dilsey on the North Fork of the Canadian
River below Camp Supply, near Cottonwood Grove, Indian Territory, November 21, 1873.
           
White Horse Chief. Age 30. Wt. 197 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 7 1/4 in. Led the party killing Manuel Ortega
and Lucien Munos, near Dr. J. J. Sturms. Participated in the Howard' Wells, Texas, massacre. Led the
party killing the Lee family and abducting the Lee children. Led the party killing Mr. Koozer near
Henrietta, Texas and carrying his wife and four children into captivity. Notoriously a murderer and
raider.Isa-tah.

Beef. Warrior. Age 22. Wt. 133 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 4 1/2 in. Participated in the murder of Manuel
Ortega and Lucien Munos. Was in the party killing Jacob Dilsey. Wo-haw.

Bad Eye. alias Bird Chief; alias Bird Medicine. Warrior and Leader. Age 43. Wt. 153 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 7
1/4 in. Participated in the assaults on Amos Chapman and party. Led party killing Jacob Dilsey. Was in
the party killing J. H. Martin, Mr. Canala, and Mr. Himes. Participated in the murder of Earnest
Modest; seized Modest by the wrist and held him while another shot him. Ta-na-ti

Double vision. Petty Chief. Age 62. Wt. 160 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 8 in. Was in the party murdering Earnest
Modest. Held the bridle of Romero's horse all the time the murder of Earnest Modest was being
accomplished. So-gau-se.

Bear-in-the-Clouds. Leader. Age 48. Wt. 159 lbs. Ht. 5 ft 9 iun. Participated in the murder of Earnest
Modest. Took care of the horses of the party while the other Indians hammered Earnest to death with
their hatchets. Sa-a-mi-a-da..

Biter. Warrior Age 24. Wt. 175 lbs. Ht 5 ft 7 in. Was in party headed by Mahmante, killing two
colored men on salt Creek Prairie. Participated in attack on buffalo hunters at Adobe Walls. Zo-tom

White Goose. Warrior. Age 30. Wt. 156 lbs Ht. 5 ft 10 in. Was with Lone Wolf, killing two men,
buffalo hunters, Wallace and Dudley; was prominent in the attack on troops on the Washita; helped to
kill the white men Modest, Osbone, and others. Tash-dle-tah.

Teeth. Warrior. Age 20. Wt. 150 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 7 in. Was with Mahmante killing the two colored men.
Was with Lone Wolf killing two buffalo hunters, Dudley and Wallace. Zone-ki-uh

Good Talk. Warrior. Age 19. Wt. 145 lbs Ht. 5 ft. 6 in. Stealing in Salt Creek Valley, Texas late in
1871. Was with Lone Wolf killing Dudley and Wallace, buffalo hunters. Lo-mi-ke-uh.

Wild Horse. Warrior. Age 29. Wt. 153 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 7 3/4 in. Was with Mahmante stealing a lot of
mules in the Brazos country in 1872. Participated in the attack on General Davidson's command at
Wichita Agency. Koba.

Wise. Warrior. Age 28. Wt. 169 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 10 1/4 in. Was with Lone Wolf killing Dudley and
Wallace. Was with Mahmante when he killed the man in the wagon. Stealing horses. Helped rob
Shirley's store. Participated in the attack on General Davidson's command. Au-lih.

Straightening an Arrow. Warrior. Died October 5, 1875. Stealing horses in or near the Salt Creek
Valley Texas. Ih-pa-yah.

Sun. Warrior. Died May 24, 1875. Participated in the murder of Jacob Dilsey. Co-a-bote-ta.

Coming to the Grove. Alias Pah-o-ah. Warrior. Participated in the murder of Jacob Dilsey. Ah-ke-ah

Man-who-Walks-above-the-Ground. Mah-mante. Alias Swan. Chief. Died July 28, 1875. Led a
party killing two colored men on the Salt Creek rairie between Jacksboro and Belknap, Texas. Killed a
man on the road south of Fort Griffin. Two men were riding in a lone wagon, Mah-mante lay concealed
and shot one. Led a party stealing a large lot of mules in the Brazos country. Killed a white woman and
child in revenge for the loss of two of his men while on a raid in Southwestern Texas Was with Lone
Wolf, killing two buffalo hhunters, Dudley and Wallace. Mah-mante

Eagle Chief
Yeaksum
Daha'ti
Buffalo Trail
Wolf Stomach
Afraid
Green Shield

Flat Nos
e. Warrior. Age 21. Wt. 149 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 5 in.Stealing horses and was with Mahmante
stealing a lot of mules in the Brazos country in 1872
. Maw-ko-peh

Bear Above
Humming Bird
Wolf Robe
Twin or Charlie Buffalo
Snake Head

Bear Mountain. Warrior. (Cheyenne father, Pawnee mother; has lived with the Kiowas for fourteen
years). Age 25. Wt. 166 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 5 in. Killed a colored man, known as Frenchy, near the
Wichita Agency. Was in a party killing two white men below Fort Griffin, Texas. Was a prominent
character in the party robbing Shirley's store. Stole horses and mules. Was with Mahmante killing the
man in the wagon. Tsait-kope-ta.

Mamanti the Skywalker died within 3 months of arriving at Fort Marion.

Cheyenne:
Heap of Birds - Chief. Age 49. Weight 177 lbs. Ht. 6 ft 1/4 in. Arrested at Cheyenne Agency. Died
October 9, 1877. Mo-e-yau-hayist

Bear Shield. Chief. Age 45. Wt. 140 lbs. Ht. 5 ft 7 1/2 in. Arrested at Cheyenne Agency. Killed
Watkins. Nock-o-yo-uh

Eagle's Head. Chief. Age 50 Wt 195 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 11 3/4 in. Arrested at Cheyenne Agency.Minimic.

Medicine Water. Warrior. Age 40. Wt. 139 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 7 1/4 in. Did kill or assist in killing a party of
surveyors, white men, consisting of Capt. Oliver F. Short and his son, F. D. Short, James Shaw and his
son, J. Allen Shaw, and J. H. Renchler, residents of Lawrence, Kans
. Mi-huh-heu-i-mup

Gray Beard.

Long Back. Subchief. Age 53. Wt. 184 lbs 8 oz. Ht. 6 ft 1 3/4 in.. Held and abused Germain
girls
.Cha-se-yun-nuh.

White Man. Warrior. Age 24. Wt. 174 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 11 1/4 in. Accomplice in Short and Germain
murders; pointed out by Medicine Water
. Ow-us-sait

Rising Bull. Warrior. Age 30. Wt. 133 lbs. Ht. 5 ft 5 in. Accomplice in above murders; pointed out by
Germain gi
rls.O-toas tuh-hos

Broken Leg. Warrior. Age 24. Wt. 131 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft 8 3/r in. Accomplice in Germain murder;
pointed out by Big Moccasin and Medicine Water. Co-hoe

Star. Warrior. Age 29. Wt. 162 lbs Ht. 5 ft. 9 3/4 in. No offense charged.Ho-i'toich.

Howling Wolf. Warrior (Minimic's son). Age 27. Wt. 161 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 9 in. Ringleader.Ho-na-nist-to

Making Medicine. Warrior. Age 33. Wt. 145 lbs. Ht. 6 ft. 1/4 in. Ring leader (Later canonized by the
Episcopal church). (see also) O-kuh-ha-tuh

Antelope. Warrior. Age 39. Wt. 152 lbs Ht. 5 ft 10 1/4 in. Ringleader.Wuk-ah

Wolf's Marrow. Warrior. Age 49. Wt. 137 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft 7 3/4 in. Ringleader. Come-uh-su-rah.

Little Medicine. Chief. Age 35. Wt. 148 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 7 3/4 in. Ringleader.Ma-ha-ih-ha-chit.

Shave Head. Warrior. Age 23. Wt. 124 lbs  8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 9 in. Ringleader.O-uk-ete-nh

Roman Nose. Warrior. Age 22. Wt. 154. Ht. 5 ft. 6 3/4 in. Ringleader. Wo-uh-hun-nih.

Squint Eyes. (See also) (one more with picture) Warrior. Age 20. Wt. 134 lbs 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 9 3/4 in.
Ringleade
r. Quch-ke-i-mus.  Tichkematse

Little Chief. Warrior. Age 23. Wt. 144 lbs 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 10 in. Ringleader. Koh-we-o-narre

Matches. Warrior. Age. 21. Wt. 136 lbs Ht. 5 ft. 8 1/2 in. Ringleader. Chris-i-se-duh.

Buffalo Meat. Warrior. Age 30 Wt. 152 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 8 in. Ringleader.O-e-wo-toh.

Buzzard. Warrior Age 22. Wt. 172 lbs. Ht. 6 ft  in. Ringleader. Moh-he-wih-kio.

Soaring Eagle. Warrior. Age 26. Wt. 128 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 7 in. Brown murder near Wallace. Had
Brown's pistol when captured by Lieutenant Hinkl
e.O-uh-oh.

Bear Killer. Warrior. Age 33. Wt. 148 lbs. Ht. 5 ft 7 in. Brown murder. Nocomista.

Left Hand. Warrior. Age 34. Wt. 141 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 10 3/4 in. Brown murder. No-mohst.

Chief Killer. Warrior. Age 28. Wt. 131 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 5 1/2 in. Participated in the killing of the Germain
parents and son and daughter, and in carrying away into captivity the four sisters
. Noh-hu-nah-wih

Buffalo Calf. Woman. Age 34. Wt. 138 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 6  in. Put an axe in head of Germain girls'
father
.Mo-chi.

Big Moccasin. Warrior. Died Nove mber 4, 1875. Captured by Captain Keyes and pointed out by
Medicine Water. Ringleader and murder
.

Lean Bear. Chief. Died July 24, 1875. Ringleader.

Shavi
ng Wolf. Warrior. Died December 5, 1876. Ringleader.

Spotted Elk. warrior. Died January 2, 1877. Ringleader.

Big Nose. warrior. Age 22. Wt. 135. 5'6 3/4 ". Pa-e-yis.

Bear's Heart warrior. age 26. wt. 136 lbs. 8 ozs. 5'9". Nock-ko-ist

Come Ask See Ask. warrior. Age 44. Weight 137lbs 8 oz. 5' 7 3/4"

(Editor: Included Black Horse because of his honor of being selected with this group)
Black Horse (shot while being loaded on wagons to leave)

Arapahoes
Packe
r. Warrior. Age 26. Wt. 143 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 9 1/2 in. Wilful murder. Killed Leon Williams, a
Mexican herder in the employment of the US Government, at the Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency
.
N
un-ne-ti-yuh.

White Bear. Warrior. Age 25. Wt. 126 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 7 1/4 in. Attempt to kill. Did shoot at, with
intent to kill, F. H. Williams, an employee of the US Governmen
t. Huh-noh-uh-co-ah

Caddos
Choctaw. Prominent man. Age 49. Wt. 160 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 7 1/4 in. Killed E. P. Osborne (Black
Beaver's son-in-law) near the Wichita Agency, Indiana Territory, August 22
, 1874. Hu-nah-nee.

Commache:
William Ayawa
t

Black Horse. Chief. Age 46. Wt. 150 lbs. Ht. 5 ft, 8 in. Talked defiantly in council with Governor
Davis. Killed a white man near Fort Cobb. Po-ka-doah.

Mad-a-with-t. Warrior. Age 26. Wt. 145 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 11 in. Died July 21, 1877. A raider. A bad
man. Always trying to persuade young men to go off to Texas.

Telling Something. Alias Buffalo Scout. Warrior. Age 22. Wt. 169 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 7 1/2 in. A raider. A
bad man. Always stealing horses or on a warpath. Taawayite. Spent some time at Hampton Industrial
school. Then moved on to Carlisle in 1881 arriving with Rev.Wicks.  He then left Carlisle in 1881 to go
to Oklahoma. Ta-a-way-te.

Tail Feathers (or Little Feather). Warrior. Age 25. Wt. 155 lbs Ht. 5 ft. 5 1/2 in. He is one of the five
fellows that shot their father and was outlawed, and whom Captian Lee, Tenth Cavalry, was sent down
to Double Mountain after in the fall of 1873. He has been on the warpath ever since. Pe-eh-chips.

Always-Sitting-Down-in-a-Bad-Place. Warrior Age 31. Wt. 141 lbs. Ht. 5 ft 5 1/4 in. A bad man.
Always off trying to seal horses, or on the warpath. Lischa-hah-da.

Pile of Rocks. Warrior. Age 46. Quoi-yo-uh.

Mother. Woman (not a prisoner). Age 31. Wt. 136 lbs. Ht  ft 3 1/2 in. Pe-ah-ni.

Ah-kes. Small child (not a prisoner). Girl. Age 9. Wt. 64 lbs Ht 3 ft. 11 1/2 in.

Nad-a-with. warrior Age 26. 145 lbs. 5'11".

Buffalo Scout. warrior. Age 22. Wt. 160. Ht. 5' 7 1/2". La-a way ite.

Mexican:
Ankle. (Kiowa captive) Warrior. Age 28. Wt. 131 lbs. Ht. 5 ft 2 1/4 in. Bad man; was with Mahmante
killing two colored
men. On-ko-eht.

High Forehead. Warrior. Age 25. Wt. 151 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 8 in. Was with Mahmante when he
killed the man in the wagon; was with Lone Wolf killing two buffalo hunt
ers. O-het-toint

Boy. Warrior. Age 21. Wt. 166 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 10 in. Was with Lone Wolf killing buffalo hunters. was in
the party attacking buffalo hunters at Adobe Wa
lls. E-tah-dle-uh

Toothless. Warrior (Mexican captured at age 18 by Kiowas.) Age 45. Wt. 133 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 1
1/2 in. Participated in the killing of two colorde men. Went to Texas with a party of Comanches and
participated in the killing of two men on the Clear Fork of the Braz
os. Zo-po-he.

Old Man. Warrior (Mexican captured at age 6). Age 38. Wt. 151 lbs 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 2 1/4 in. Helped
rob Shirley's store at the Wichita Age
ncy. Beah-ko.

Kicking. Alias Club Foot. Warrior (Mexican capured at age 5). Age 27. Was with Lone Wolf killing
Dudley and Wallace. Was with Mahmante killing the two colored men. Helped rob Shirley's store.
Participated in the attack on General Davidson's command. Stealing mules. Ko-ho.

Pedro. Warrior (Mexican captured at age 5). Age 48. Wt. 136 lbs. 8 oz. Ht. 5 ft. 5 in. Killed a colored
man, known as Frenchy, near the Wichita Agency, Was in a party killing two white men below Fort
Griffin. Was a prominent character in the party robbing Shirley's store. Stole horses and mules. Was
with Mahmante killing the man in the wag
on.

Bull (or Buffalo) with Holes in His
Ears. Warrior (Mexican captured at age 8). Age 45. Wt. 132 lbs.
Ht. 5 ft. 2 1/4 in. Was with Mahmante killing the two colored men. Was with Lone Wolf killing Dudley
and Wallace. Stealing mul
es. To-o-sape

Buck (or Red) An
telope. Warrior (Mexican). Age 31 Wt. 137 lbs. Ht. 5 ft 5 1/2 in. Was in Texas with
a party and stole hor
ses.Ech-e-wah-ats.

Little Prairie Hill. Warrior. Age 42. Wt. 133 lbs. Ht. 5 ft. 4 1/2 in. Helped steal 45 horses from near
Fort Sill belonging to Kiowas and Commache Agency. Trhreatened to kill Mr. Clark. Drew pistol on
Clark. Pavooite.

Dry Wood. Mexican Father, Comanche Mother. Age 30 Wt. 140 Height 5'9". My-a-ko.

Phyle
shano

Polocy
Descriptions from Battlefield and Classroom
At the Castillo de San Marcos
New York Public Library
3 Chiefs
New York Public Library
As guards
New York Public Library
At Castillo
New York Public Library
Kiowa and Caddos
New York Public Library
Black Horse, wife and child
New York Public Library
Medicine Water and wife
New York Public Library
Cheyenne and Araphoes
New York Public Library
Custom Search
Howling Wolf - Honanistto
Bear's Heart - Nock-ko-ist
O-uk-ste-uh (aka Shave Head)
Making Medicine (aka David Pendleton Oakerhater) with
his wife, Nahepo (aka Smoking Woman, aka Susie Anna
Bent-Oakerhater)
Episcopal Saint
Kiowa Apache Indian chief named Tau-Ankia, Fort Marion
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