New Smyrna, Florida
Volusia County
Florida East Coast Railway
Indian News (Macon Weekly Telegraph, February 10, 1857)
The last news from the upper St. Johns says the
Palatka Democratic Extra, is to the effect that Indians are supposed to
concentrated, in considerable force, in the Swamps about New Smyrna. Capt. Bullocks's Company has moved to a
position to intercept the Indians, while Sheldon, with a Company, is to make a demonstration in the rear, where the
Indians are supposed to be located.

The Governor of Florida has issued a call for three independent companies of Foot Volunteers, one to be mustered into
service at
Palatka, and the remainder at New Smyrna.

New Smyrna in 1869 (A Guide Book of Florida and the South by Daniel Garrison Brinton)
This small settlement of half a dozen houses, is on Mosquito lagoon, or Halifax river. It is reached by a rather
rough-traveling weekly stages from Enterprise, for the immoderate sum of $8.00 a head. Board can be obtained of Mrs.
Sheldon. New Smyrna was laid out by Dr. Turnbull, during the English occupancy of Florida, and hither he brought his
colony of Greeks, Minorcans, and Italians, as I have previously related. The marks of their faithful industry are still
discernible. Turtle Mound, on the west bank of the Lagoon, near the town, is one of the most remarkable shell-mounds,
or "Kitchen-middens" in Florida. I have described it in my "Notes on the Floridian Peninsula," page 178. There are a
number of other equally curious remains of a similar character in the vicinity.

A hundred years ago nearly the whole of the bluff along the river, about half a mile wide, and nearly forty in length, was
one vast orange grove.

A mail boat leaves here for India river every second week.

The Great South by Edward King (1875)
The brown maidens, the olive-colored women that you see in the streets, are the descendants of that colony from the
Minorcan Islands, which one Dr. Turnbull induced to settle on the coast, at a place called New Smyrna, more than a
hundred years ago. Fourteen hundred persons were brought out, and engaged in the culture of indigo, which then
commanded an enormous price. Turnbull succeeded in obtaining absolute control over the defenseless colonists, cut
them off from all communication with other settlements, and was rapidly reducing them to a condition of actual slavery,
when they revolted, but in vain; and it was not until the English attorney-general of the province interfered in their
behalf, that they were emancipated from Turnbull's tyranny, and allowed to remove to St. Augustine, where they and
their descendants have now been a part of the population for nearly a century. Their old habits and customs, brought
from the islands, are rapidly dying out; and the dialect songs which Mr. Bryant heard during his visit, in 1843, have
almost entirely disappeared. Many of the women are extremely beautiful in their youth, but they fade early. The men are
bold, hardy fishermen, Greek and Italian in type and robustness--while the women have much of the delicacy of form
and feature of their American sisters.

Volusia's First Public School (
Many Happy Returns - A Bicentennial Salute to Schools by the Florida Retired Teachers
The first schoolhouse in Volusia county, Florida cost $42.00 in cash, plus some donated labor and materials. The
building was constructed in New Smyrna Beach in 1882. Champ H. Spencer was then school superintendent by
gubernatorial appointment. He administered the expenditure of the $42.00 in donations. The school was built about 350
feet northwest of the old Ocean House.

F. W. Sams, owner of the Ocean House, brought Miss Della Stowe of Massachusetts to New Smyrna as governess for
his children. When the hotel changed hands years later, Miss Stowe stayed on as teacher for the children of Mr. and
Mrs. E. K. Lowd, and thus became Volusia County's first school teacher.

In 1887 the Town of New Smyrna was incorporated. The town grew after the Florida East Coast Railway arrived in 1892.

Handbook of Florida (Norton, 1890)
Hotel -- Ocean House, $3 a day
Railroad ---The Atlantic and Western
Steamboats on Halifax and Hillsborough River

New Smyrna is one of the oldest settlements in Florida. Shell-mounds and barbaric implements are found, proving its
early occupation by Indians, and there are numerous ancient ruins, probably of Spanish construction, but concerning
which nothing definite is known.

Authentic history begins in 1767, when a certain Dr. Andrew Turnbull, an English gentlement of fortune, entered upon
the gigantic task of draining the low hammocks back of New Smyrna, and making them fit for cultivation. He had satisfied
himself of the wonderful richness of this tract, and preliminary surveys had proved the possibilities of drainage. This was
four years after the cession of Florida to Great Britain, and the English were fast learning that they need not depend on
provision ships for the necessaries of life.

Turnbull procured a grant of sixty thousand acres from the Governor on condition that certain improvements should be
made within a specified time. He then sailed to the Mediterranean, and secured permission from the authorities to
transport to Florida a large number of Greek families. For this permit he paid 400 pounds. Most of the Greeks were from
the Peloponnesus. The number was further recruited from the Balearic Isles, and in the end some fifteen hundred
persons, men, women, and children, emigrated under his leadership.


Success seemed assured, but for some reason the management of affairs was left to agents, who inaugurated a system
of oppression that soon became absolute slavery with all its revolting features. By 1776 only six hundred of the colonists
were left. In the summer of that year a part of Englishmen from St. Augustine visited New Smyrna to see the
improvements, and while conversing among themselves their comments on the state of affairs were overheard by a
bright Minorcan boy, who immediately told his mother what he had heard. Secret meetings were held, and a plan was
concocted whereby a party of three of the bolder spirits were granted leave of absence to catch turtle. Instead of going
south, however, they started up the coast, swam Matanzas Inlet, and reaching St. Augustine appealed to Governor
Tonyn for protection, which was promised. The envoys returned to New Smyrna with the tidings of release. A leader was
chosen, Pallicer by name, and under his direction the able-bodied men provided themselves with wooden spears,
rations were packed for three days, and with the women and children in the centre the six hundred began their march.
So secretly was all this managed that they had proceeded several miles before their departure was discovered. No
attempt at forcible restraint was made, though it is said that Turnbull himself waylaid them before they reached St.
Augustine, and endeavored to persuade them to return. They marched on, however, and reported to the Governor, who
ordered provisions for them, and organized a court for the trail of their cause, the Attorney-General of the Province,
Younge by name, appearing as their counsel. Turnbull failed to establish any further claim upon their services, and they
were assured of personal liberty. Lands were assigned them, and they soon became an influential element of the
population in St. Augustine. Some of their descendants are still to be found in the nieghborhood of New Smyrna, whither
they returned after they became assured that there was no danger of re-enslavement.

After the Minorcan revolt New Smyrna was abandoned for nearly a generation. In 1803, however, a few pioneers came
back, and by 1835 some degree of prosperity had returned. Then came the Seminole War and the little settlement was
nearly exterminated by successive raids. After peace was restored the survivors found their way back, rebuilt their
houses, and for twenty years were undisturbed.

With the outbreak of the Civil War Mosquito Inlet offered a tempting haven for blockade-runners, and it became
necessary to break up the rendezvous. Two United States gunboats, the Penguin and the Henry Andrew, reached the
inlet on March 20, 1862. The last anmed vessel, being of light draft, cross the bar. On the 22d a boat expedition, with 43
men, was sent down to Mosquito Lagoon to reconnoitre. They went down eighteen miles, passing New Smyrna
unmolested, but on their return the leading boat was fired into from an earthwork near the town, which from previous
examination was supposed to be abandoned. Lieutenant Budd of the Pensuin and Master Mather of the Andrew were
killed, and in the engagement that followed thirteen others were killed or wounded. The survivors took to cover on shore
and rejoined their ships after night had fallen. Of course summary vengenance was taken for this attack, and all
buildings, wharves, and the like, that could be of service to blockade-runners were destroyed.

1892 (From Snow to Sun Florida Winter Pleasure Tours Pennsylvania Railroad)
21 miles from Lake Helen, via Atlantic and Western Railroad Company. Same connection from Jacksonville as for Lake

Few people visiting New Smyrna understand that the first cultivation of this valuable and vast territory should be credited
to an importation in 1767 of a number of Greek families. It was really the founding of a miniature Athens on American
soil, and even to-day some of their descendants are still living in this neighborhood and in St. Augustine. It is a rich
country and the favorite resort of the sportsmen. Interest attaches to the place owing to its being one of the oldest
settlements in Florida ; here shell mounds and crude implements used centuries ago are found, and' ancient Spanish
constructions ; while the handwork of the Greeks may plainly be distinguished.

Ocean House $3-00 per day.

Florida Beauties of the East Coast by Joseph Richardson, General Passenger Agent for the Jacksonville, St.
Augustine and Indian River Railway, 1892
New Smyrna is located three miles south of the inlet on the west bank of the Hillsborough River. It is the oldest place on
the coast south of St. Augustine. It was here that the Minorcan slaves (sic) first settled under the renowned Turnbull,
and beneath skies as soft as over their own island home farmed indigo plantations.

New Smyrna and Oak Hill (a few miles further south) are celebrated resorts for sportsmen. The scenery along the
numerous drives and walks is particularly interesting.

The Standard Guide 1897
New Smyrna, three miles further south, on the Hillsborough river, is the oldest settlement on the East Coast south of St.
Augustine; and is historically famous for the Creek and Minorcan colony, 1,500 strong established by Dr. Turnbull in
1767. Turnbull's "castle" or "palace," with its sixteen chimneys, stood on the high and vast shell mound which commands
the whole adjacent region. It was partly destroyed by the Seminole Indians, who drove out the sugar planters and
captured many of their slaves. Afterward it became a target for Admiral Du Pont's fleet, which more completely
demolished it during the Civil War, leaving, however, the grandly solid walls of the old cellar and the capacious wells to
indicate its palatial extent. All along the river bank for four miles north and three miles south are scattered the ruins of
old Minorcan houses, with coquina stone floors, chimneys and wells, curbed with hewn stone. The drainage canals,
indigo vats and ruins of old sugar mills indicate large industries. One of the canals still in use, and dug about 127 mills
indicate large industries. One of the canals still in use, and dug about 127 years ago, is twenty-two feet deep and five
feet wide. It extends several miles, and must have employed an immense amount of hard labor. A comprehensive and
sympathetic chapter of Old St. Augustine is devoted to these New Smyrna experiences of the unhappy colonists. Not
less interesting here also are the ancient ruins of a Spanish dynasty which antedated the English possession. The
"Rock House," a stately ruin with thick walls and well preserved chimney and fireplace, and situated on a high bluff,
commands a magnificent view of the inlet and ocean and all the surrounding region. A large cedar stands in the middle
of one of the rooms. It is probably one of the oldest structures in the United States. It might have been a military outpost,
or a mission house, as is indicated by a niche in the wall.

A much more extensive and imposing ruin lies out in an old field a little way west of the town, which has until lately been
designated as the "Sugar House." It was undoubtedly used for this purpose, but the ecclesiastical lines of its
foundations, and the architectural symmetry and beauty of its walls and arches, plainly indicate an earlier religious origin
as the seat of a Spanish mission.

New Smyrna is well worth visiting on its own account, for its hammock and water scenery and beach. Mr. W. E. Connor,
of New York, owns a beautiful winter residence here, with elegant surroundings. Mr. Pierre Lorillard makes New Smyrna
the winter rendezvous of his house boat and yachts. The Indian River water system, including the Halifax and
Hillsborough, Lake Worth and Biscayne Bay, is becoming more and more from year to year the abode of ample house
boats and pleasure craft of all descriptions. The fishing here and at Mosquito Inlet has long been famous.

New Smyrna (The Tatler 1899)
New Smyrna a rival to St. Augustine in historical interest, and a picturesque town with several beaches near by, Corando
being the most notable, affording excellent bathing almost the entire year. Here, too, are miles of hard beach, where
driving, with the murmur of the ocean in the ear, its ceaseless motion, the reflection of flitting clouds, adding to the
pleasure. At New Smyrna a branch road of the Jacksonville, St. Augustine and New Smyrna leaves the main road for
Lake Helen, on the St. Johns passing through a series of beautiful lakes, interspersed with villages as thrifty as those
left by their settlers in far away New England.

Florida East Coast Homeseeker (1908)
The canning factory is now running on full time, putting up periwinkle (clam) soups. The factory will be busy for the next
two or three months canning this delicious soup. Later it is probable that the proprietor will turn his attention to canning

Historic New Smyrna (Florida East Coast Homeseeker, 1908)
This charming place, which for so long has attracted the tourist and settler, is taking on new life in the development of its
rich Agricultural resources -- A delightful place to live in, and rich productive lands to cultivate-special fishing, boating
and hunting.

The people of New Smyrna have long boasted of the historic data of their town, but, as Father Ryan said: "The new has
charms which the old hath not," and the people of that section are today turning the rich hammock lands into truck
gardens that yield unusual returns.

Many, many years ago it was a Spanish colony, and vast amounts of money were spent in excavating for drainage
canals, building homes, churches and a sugar refinery, planting sugar cane and indigo, but the relentless Seminoles
proved too strong for the colonists, and those who were not killed by the savages fled and returned to their homes. Here
the mound builder has everywhere left his mark on the landscape. Here the Spaniard left his forts, houses and
improvements. Here are miles of the canal, sugar and indigo plantations left by Turnbull 150 years ago. Everywhere you
will find evidences of great agricultural work throughout this immense hammock.

It is difficult to realize what a beautiful body of land this great Turnbull Hammock is covered with a heavy growth of
hardwood timber, hickory, ash, gum and many other varieties, cabbage palms and many other ornamental trees.

New Smyrna is an attractive village located in this dense hammock with immense live oak trees with moss-covered
branches. The streets are paved with shell, and are hard and smooth and as white as snow. Oysters and clams abound
in the river and commercial fishing abound in the river and commercial fishing is carried on to a considerable extent.
Tourists from all sections of the North are attracted there during the winter season. There is a bridge that spans the
Hillsboro river at New Smyrna, and a popular summer resort has been built on the beach. Hotels, boarding houses and
cottages abound, and are well filled during the summer months with people from the interior.

The lands around New Smyrna are rich and suitable for growing citrus fruits, vegetables and general farming. Hon.
Washington E. Connor, the well-known New York financier, has a winter home here, and is one of the largest orange
growers in the State. He has three hundred acres in orange groves on rich hammock lands. It is itself worth a visit to
New Smyrna by any person intending settlement in Florida.

New Smyrna has a free library, graded school, 50 miles of shelled roads and 50 miles of ocean beach. There is no
bonded debt in either county or town. There is ample labor at reasonable prices.

There are twelve months in the year in which to grow something, three crops a year in rotation, which gives the market
gardener and farmer the advantage of continuous cropping.

Oranges and grapefruit are shipped in the winter, plums in the early summer and persimmons in the late fall and
summer. Game abounds and the river teams with fish; summer and winter there is sport for those who want it.

Transportation facilities are of the best. The Florida East Coast runs the full length of this great hammock. It is the
junction of the branch from Orange City, and a switch track runs to the river. The East Coast Canal from St. Augustine
to Miami runs by New Smyrna giving water transportation along the entire coast.

There is no section of Florida producing more dollars and cents to the acre than the East Coast, and it is claimed that
the Turnbull Hammock represents its richest lands.

A very narrow peninsula where many people are building homes, divides the river from the ocean, and all summer cool
breezes are blowing across to the mainland. The beach is also a winter and summer resort. It is accessible by boat and
road, and is building up very rapidly.

All the industries of New Smyrna are developing very fast. The people are hospitable, and welcome newcomers.

Within ten minutes' walk of the depot at New Smyrna a new tract of land has been put on the market in tracts of five and
ten acres, artesian wells have been driven and it is especially desired to put this land in cultivation for those who desire
a small place where they can raise fruits and vegetables, and make a good living from five or ten acres, artesian wells
have been driven and it is especially desired to put this land in cultivation for those who desire a small place where they
can raise fruits and vegetables and make a good living from five or ten acres intelligently cultivated and enjoy all of the
comforts of town life. Experiments made in celery growing have been very successful, and all vegetable crops can be
raised for the early markets. For a short while these lands will be sold at $50 per acre; terms to suit. They offer unusual
advantages and will sell rapidly. They are in charge of Capt. F. W. Sams, proprietor of the Ocean House at New Smyrna,
who will be glad to give all desired information. Mr. C. R. Dilzer, New Smyrna, Fla., can also give full information as to
improved properties, and the New Smyrna Real Estate Agency can give any further information desired.

New Smyrna is growing fast now, and will grow faster, and furnishes every advantage for the settler who desires
healthful climate, good soil and comfortable social environment.

Places to stay 1909

Alba Court
-- C. W. & J. F. Pennell, proprietors. A new house, modern and convenient. All outside rooms.
Accommodates forty-five. Rates, $2.00 and up per day. Special by the week.

Fox House -- Dr. B. F. For, proprietor. Accommodates twenty-two. Rates, $1.00 and up per day; $5.00 per week.

Magnolia Hotel -- C. H. Yeargin, proprietor. Accommodates twenty-five. Rates, $1.50 up per day; $8.00 per week.

Ocean House -- Open December to May. Accommodates 100. Rates, $3.00 per day; special by the week. Located on
the banks of the famous Indian River (North) and offers many attractions to the tourist, pleasure seeker, and sportsman.
It is modern and commodious, with sanitary plumbing, baths, etc.

The Palmetto -- Mrs. J. W. Ashton, proprietor. Accommodates fifteen. Comfortable and home-like. Rates, $2.00 per
day; $5.00 per week.

Paul Cottage -- Mrs. Paul, proprietor. Accommodates twenty. Rates, $1.50 per day; $20.00 per week.

Rose Villa -- Mrs. H. Moeller, proprietor. Accommodates twenty. Rates, $2.00 and up per day; $10.00 and up per week.

W. P. Shryock -- Two suites, furnished, to rent at $25.00 per month each.

Mrs. Skipper -- Five suites, furnished, to rent at $25.00 per month each.

Mrs. J. H. Wright -- Five rooms, for light housekeeping, to rent at $30.00 per month.

Mrs. Boyd -- To rent eight rooms for light housekeeping.

 Places to Stay 1912
Alba Court,
C. W. & J. F. Pennell; capacity, 45; rates - per day, $2.00 up, per week, $10.00 up.

Byrd House, J. W. Byrd; capacity, 22; rates - per day, $1.00, per week, $5.00

Fox House, Dr. B. F. Flx; capacity, 15; rates - per day, $1.50 up, per week, special.

Magnolia, Mrs. G. A. Demmick; capacity, 25; rates - per day, $2.00, per week, $10.00.

Ocean House, Sams & Sams; capacity, 100; rates - per day, $1.00, per week, $5.00

Palmetto, Mrs. J. W. Ashton; capacity, 15; rates - per day, $1.00, per week, $5.00

Paul Cottage, Mrs. Paul; capacity, 20; rates - per day, $1.50 per week, $10.00.

Old Coffee Mill is Unearthed at Smyrna (St. Augustine Evening Record, Nov. 7, 1917)
The discovery of an interesting relic at New Smyrna is told of in a recent issue of the New Smyrna News which says:

"Another relic of the early days in New Smyrna was unearthed this week by workmen excavating to make sewer
connection with W. P Shryock's building at Lytle avenue and Hillsboro street, in the shape of an ancient coffee mill,
which has evidently been buried there since Andrew Turnbull had his big rooming house at the same location. The
coffee mill is still in a good state of preservation which shows that the manufacturers of those early days knew how to
make machinery. It shows plainly that it had been bolted to some kind of support, and whether it was thrown away and
later buried, or whether it was thrown away and later buried, or whether it was left when the Turnbull settlement was
broken up, will never be known. It is said that when the Turnbull settlement was flourishing in this locality, there was a
large building at about the same location as the Shryock building, where Andrew Turnbull housed his white women
slaves. It is believed there must have been several buildings in that vicinity, as the foundations and walls of several of
the structures stood for many years, and some of them are still standing, around the well in the rear of the Shryock
store, which must have been used as a community water supply. The well is still in good preservation and is used by
many people living in that part of the city. Many interesting relics have been unearthed at various times in making
excavations in that vicinity.

1939 (Florida)
New Smyrna, (10 alt., 4,149 pop.), has a business section with square false-front buildings shaded by arcades of wood
and corrugated iron to protect shoppers from sun and rain. Old frame houses, chiefly of the post-Victorian era, sit back
from the street behind moss-hung oaks and Washingtonian palms. Fishing and shrimp fleets, citrus groves, packing
houses, and the Florida East Coast Railway shops provide the income of New Smyrna residents.

Scattered through the town are many reminders of New Smyrna's long history---sunken stone piers, ruins of a Spanish
mission, foundations of an old fort, and canals that start deep in heavy undergrowth and run through the town to the
river. The first known settlement on the site was the Indian village of Caparaca. Spanish missionaries arrived in 1696
and established the Mission of Atocumi.

In 17767 Dr. Andrew Turnbull, a Scottish physician, brought 1,500 colonists here. About 1,200 were from the Island of
Minorca, east of Spain; the others were Italians and Greeks. The British Government provided a sloop of war and gave
a bounty of L4,500 to promote the settlement, which had many powerful backers. Lord Grenville, First Lord of the
Treasury, was a partner
ex officio. Grants of more than 100,000 acres of land were made to the colony. The colonists
found pioneering anything but idyllic, but they accomplished a great deal in the nine years of settlement, building an
elaborate system of canals to drain the rich hammock land. Indigo raised on the fertile soil found a ready market in
England. Roads were laid out, some of which are still used.

By the time of the American Revolution many of the settlers had died, and discontent prevailed. Charges and
counter-charges about the administration of the settlement flew thick and fast; troops were brought in to maintain order.
With the appointment of Tonyn as governor in 1776, all who wished to do so were granted permission to leave the
settlement; the majority moved to St. Augustine, where many of their descendants live.

In 1803 Spanish grants of land were given to the Martin and Murray families. Subsequently, though harried by Seminole
raids and blockade running in the Civil War, the town experienced a slow growth, stimulated by the advent of the railroad
and later by highway improvements and the completion of the Intracoastal Waterway.

The Foundations of an Old Fort, Hillsborough St. between Washington and Julian Sts., were discovered in 1854 when
an Indian mound was excavated. Their origin and history remain unknown.

The Turnbull Canal, 10 feet deep and 10 feet wide, excavated in places through solid coquina, ex4 miles west from the
boat slips at the river's edge and is still used for drainage purposes. In some parts of the city the canal is roofed over
the sidewalks and streets.

The Ruins of the Mission Atocuimi (adm. 25 cents), Canal St., built in the 1690's, are owned by the Florida State
Historical Society. In 1696 the Jororo Indians rebelled against an order of Fray Luis Sanchez, a priest, who forbade their
observance of certain tribal customs. The priest and two of his Indian converts were slain, and the church ornaments
stolen. The mission was used as a sugar mill during the British regime.
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