National Freedmans Relief Association
Objectives, Officers, Teacher Instructions
The National Freedmans Relief Association, New York

On February 22, 1862 the National Freedman's Relief Association. New York,  originated at a meeting held in
the hall of the Cooper Institute, in response to an appeal from Gen. Sherman and Commodore Dupont,
representing in a general order, dated the 6th of that month, the helpless condition of the blacks within the vast
area occupied by the forces under their command, and calling upon the benevolent and philanthropic of the
land for aid. The President would be Francis George Shaw, Corresponding Secretary Rev. O. B.
Frothingham, Recording Secretary George Cabot Ward, Treasurer Joseph B. Collins, the Executive
Committee consisted of C. C. Leigh, Chas. Collins, Rev. Henry J. Fox and William Geo Hawkins. The
advisory committee was S. H. Tyng, D. D. and Wm C. Bryant. (See
American Missionary for an article on
Port Royal and the beginning of the NFRA.)

The founding committee was appointed to organize an Association, to make a special appeal to the public, to
appoint suitable teachers to instruct the Freedmen in industrial and mechanical arts, in the rudiments of
education, the principles of Christianity, their accountability to the laws of God and man, their relation to each
other as social beings, and all that might be necessary to render them competent to sustain themselves as
members of a civilized society.

At this meeting William Cullen Bryant proposed that the ex-slaves be known as freedmen as opposed to
contrabands. (
See more information on the meeting)

In November 1863 the National Freedmen's Association would send by the steamer
Arago the following
teachers: Miss A. G. Goodhue, Miss M. A. Fowler, Miss Kate Foote, Miss M. A. Buss, Miss E. H. Peck,
Miss S. E. Peck, Miss E. I. Stuart, Miss L. E. Loyell and Miss E. M. Wood to Beaufort. (See
Port Royal
Experiment)

Officers in the First Annual Report: (see broadsides below for some confusion)
President,
S. H. TYNG, D. D., 83 East Sixteenth Street.

Corresponding Secretary.
EDGAR KETCHUM, 83 Nassau Street.

Recording Secretary.
GEORGE CABOT WARD, 56 Wall Street.

Treasurer,
JOSEPH B. COLLINS, 40 Wall Street.

Finance Committee.
GEORGE CABOT WARD, 56 Wall Street.
JOSEPH B. COLLINS, 40 Wall Street.
Home Committee.
CHARLES C. LEIGH, 49 Fourth Street, and 400 Broadway.
FRANCIS GEORGE SHAW, 111 Broadway.
WILLIAM ALLEN BUTLER, 111 Broadway.

Foreign Committee,
CHARLES GOULD, 2 Hanover Street.
MANSFIELD FRENCH, 5 Beck man Street.
EDGAR KETCHUM, 83 Nassau Street.

Auxiliary Clergymen's Committee.
REV. O. B. FROTHINGHAM, Chairman, 112 West Thirty-fourth Street.
REV. GEORGE WHIPPLE,Secretary, 61 John Street.
REV. PROF. JOHN W. LINDSAY, 191 West Eighteenth Street.
REV, NATHAN BROWN, D. D., 115 Nassau Street.
REV. J. R. W. SLOANE, 208 West Twenty-second Street.
REV. PROF. HENRY B. SMITH, 34 East Twenty-fifth Street.

Auxiliary Women's Committee. MRS. G. T. M. DAVIS, Cor. Secretary, 144 East Seventeenth
Street.
MISS JULIA F. GOULD, Rec. Secretary, 5 East Twenty-sixth Street.
MRS. WM. ALLEN BUTLER, Treasurer, 13 East Twelfth.
Street.

C. C. LEIGH, No, 400 Broadway, New York, Depot for the Reception of Commodities.

District Secretaries
REV. JOHN DUDLEY, New Haven, Conn.,
REV. D, C. HAYNE3, 400 Broadway, New York,
REV. F. JANES: Utica, N. Y.,

Officers of the Association  (Later list)
President - John W. Edmonds, No. 111 Broadway.

Corresponding Secretary -- Edgar Ketchum, No. 83 Nassau Street.

Recording Secretary -- Edward Gilbert, No. 111 Broadway

Treasurer - Joseph B. Collins, No. 40 Wall Street

Finance Committee - George Cabot Ward, No. 56 Wall St.
Home Committee -  Charles C. Leigh, No. 320 Broadway.
      Benjamin Wandell, No. 3 Pine St.
      Joseph B. Collins, No. 40 Wall St.
Francis George Shaw, No. 111 Broadway
Wm. Allen Butler, No. 111 Broadway

Instructions to Teachers and Applicants - July 20, 1866
Before acting on any application, the Committee on Teachers require information on the following points:

1. The applicant's full name, age, occupation, and whether with or without family responsibilities.

2. Physical Condition. - No person should apply, or be recommended by others, who has a tendency to
pulmonary disease,     or who is in any way incapacitated to endure a severe test, both of the mental and
physical energies.

3. Mental Qualifications - As a general rule, those only should be encouraged to apply who have had
experience in  teaching, are found of the employment, and have given satisfactory proof of ability.

4. Personal Characteristics - Habits of industry, economy fidelity, patience, and devotion to the work.

The usual compensation of teachers is about $35 per month, teachers boarding themselves.

New York Branch of the American Freedmen Union Commission
In 1865 in the union of these societies this became the New York Branch of the American Freedmen Union
Commission.

A Short History (The National Freedmen, June 1866)
A SKETCH OF ITS EARLY HISTORY.

The reports which accompany this sketch will fail to give an adequate idea of the work accomplished by the
Association, unless they are read in connection with such portions of its history as may serve to show the
present achievement in relief against the past. In itself, the work actually done may seem small; it will certainly
seem small as measured by the labor before us. Taking into account the work performed in earlier years,
however, it will appear large. It will look very large when the difficulties are considered under which-it was
undertaken.

The National Freedman's Relief Association was born of the war. It came into being at the suggestion of Gen.
Sherman. On February 6, 1862,
General Order No. 9 was issued, calling urgent attention to the condition of
the blacks in South Carolina. The order from which we make an extract reads: "The helpless condition of the
blacka inhabiting the vast area in the occupation of the forces of this command calls for immediate action on the
part of a highly favored and philanthropic people. * * * Hordes of totally uneducated, ignorant, and
improvident blacks have been abandoned by their constitutional guardians, not only to all the future chances of
anarchy and starvation, but in such a state of abject ignorance and mental stolidity as to preclude all possibility
of self-government and self-maintenance in their present condition. Adequate provision for the pressing
necessities of this unfortunate and now interesting class of people being 'herefore imperatively demanded, even
by the dictates of humanity alone. An additional duty, next only in importance to that of the preservation of a
world-revered constitution and union, is now forced upon us by an unnatural and wicked rebellion.

"To relieve the Government of a burden that may hereafter become insupportable, and to enable the blacks to
support and govern themselves in the absence and abandonment of their disloyal guardians, a suitable system
of culture and instruction must be combined with one providing for their physical wants. In the mean while, and
until the blacks become capable of themselves of thinking and acting judiciously, the service of competent
instructors will Be received, whose duties will consist in teaching them, both young and old, the rudiments of
civilization and Christianity; their amenability to the laws of God and man; their relation to each other, as social
beings, and all that is necessary to render them competent to sustain themselves in social and business pursuits.
* * * As the blacks are now in great need of suitable clothing, if not other necessaries of life, which necessity
will probably continue and even increase until the above system gets into working order, the benevolent and
philanthropic of the land are most earnestly appealed to for relieving their immediate wants."

In response to this appeal from Gen. Sherman, strengthened by one from Com. Dupont, a meeting was called
at the Cooper Union, on the 20th of February, to consider measures to be taken in aid of the black people. At
that meeting W. C. Bryant, Stephen H. Tyng, C. 0. Leigh, Charles Gould, Francis G. Shaw, Wm. Allen Butler,
Geo. C. Ward,
Mansfield .French, Jos. B. Collins, Edgar Ketchum, and John W. Edwards, were appointed a
Committee to organize an Association, to make such an appeal as Gen. Sherman advised, and to meet his
recommendations. In pursuance of this appointment and of these instructions, the Committee met on the 22d
day of February, 1862, and organized the National Freedman's Relief Association, declaring its objects to be
as above stated, and requesting co-operation of other Societiea, and aid from the public. To attain the and
proposed, the following rules in regard to the treatment of the blacks were adopted:

1. They must be treated as freemen.

2. They must earn their livelihood like other Freemen, and not be dependent on charity.

3. Their labors must be performed under well-organized superintendence.

4. They must receive compensation for their labors in the shape of daily wages, a sufficient percentage being
reserved to defray the cost of superintendence.

5. As soon as their labor is organized, they must be required to earn their own support.

6. In the mean time, they will be aided with food, clothing, and shelter; but such supplies will be charged to
them, as advances, to be repaid without interest.

7. They may erect tenements on the land, and occupy them free of charge; but when they occupy tenements
erected or supplied by the Association, they shall pay rent.

8. Schools and churches shall be established among them, and the sick shall be cared for.

9. No idleness will be allowed; but all must work who can.

10. Each one will be encouraged to raise on ••. his own ground such articles of food as his family may require,
and be so taught gardening as to raise quantities for the army and navy, and other markets.

11. To guard against imposition on their ignorance and inexperience, no stores will be allowed among them
except those licensed by the Association.

Thus cautiously, moderately, wisely, the work was begun. It was a work of immense magnitude. The accounts
of the condition of the negroes at that time, in the districts to which we were called, present a terrible record of
human want and misery. All supplies of clothing and medicine had been carried off by their masters. All
poultry, pigs, and other eatables, had been consumed by the army. Loathsome diseases were spreading among
the people, and although willing to work, and anxious to provide for their own necessities, they were doomed
to continue in their abject misery unless individual benevolence came to the rescue.

Government, while recognizing all this time, . in the fullest manner, the magnitude of the interests involved, did
not feel at liberty to extend important relief. The Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Chase, expressed a deep
interest in the condition of the negroes and in the efforts made in their behalf, but said, that until Congress
should adopt some definite action, his own power was necessarily limited. Something was done to provide
against actual starvation, by the distribution of corn and other rations; but this distribution was limited to about
one-fifth of the negroes within our lines, many of whom were living on wild roots, pounded and eaten after the
fashion of the Digger Indians. The negroes were outrageously treated by the soldiers of the army, as well as by
the civil employees of the Government. They were stripped of everything they had in the shape of food. Their
women  were shamefully abused. The South swarmed with Northern pro-slavery men, who entertained the
deepest prejudice against the black people, and threw every obstacle in the way of their comfort and
improvement. The cotton agents agreed to pay small wages, but uniformly paid them in goods at exorbitant
prices, which reduced the poor people to the very verge of starvation. Their operations were absolutely
crushing to the poor negroes, who had no redress. They were willing to work, men and women alike. They
strongly desired to work, either "for wages or on their own account. There was no backwardness. They
begged for seeds and tools, that they might begin at once. They were confident of their ability to provide for
themselves all things necessary, and even to manage the estates on which they were left. They were frugal of
what they had, and doled out with great economy what little remained on the abandoned estates. But what
could they do? The agents of the Government were the only persons ready to employ them. They must work
for them and at their own price; and that price was too little to be in the smallest measure remunerative.

While thus poor, helpless, and wronged, these desolated people were full of terror. A hideous fear oppressed
them lest their masters should return and re-enslave them. At the bare mention of such a calamity, says one
trustworthy witness, " their lips assume an ashy paleness, a haggard expression of dread spreads over their
faces, and they say they would rather be a hundred times dead than that their masters should come again and
get them."

Such was the work to be done, and such were some of the difficulties under which it must be taken in hand.
But these were not all the difficulties. On all sides opposition showed its head. The Southern hostility has been
already touched upon. This was no greater than was to have been looked for, and the grounds of it are
obvious to all thinking persons. It would have been very strange had the Southern whites, who had so fiercely
resented the endeavors to improve their slaves, manifested the least interest, or any feeling but antipathy,
toward those who took advantage of their misfortune and weakness to make the President's freedmen more
like human beings than they had been; who were engaged in the task of emancipating them in fact, as well as in
name, and were anxious to render their future enslavement an impossibility. Only the intense excitement of the
war prevented their opposition from expressing itself .more furiously than it did.

The Southern opposition might have been overcome, however, if the public sentiment of the North had been
unanimously, or even strongly, in favor of the Preedmen's Associations. But it was not, even at this day it is not.
The war engrossed all minds. The masses of the people had never been anti-slavery in sentiment. The number
was small of those who had faith in the black man's capacity, or hope in his future, or interested in his fate. The
Sanitary Commission was pressing its plea for money to aid and comfort the sick and wounded soldiers. Pew
heard the freedmen's sigh; few that heard it heeded it. He was regarded as a hopeless vagabond, who had no
health in him, and whom it would be foolishness to attempt to aid. Some said the money would be thrown
away; some that it would be worse than thrown away, for it would go to perpetuate pauperism. Some again
declare that the negroes were better off as they were; that it might be their destiny to be pushed off the
continent, or to be plowed into it; but that it could never be their destiny to take a place in modern civilization.
These prejudices were strongest among the wealthiest and most influential. The politicians took none but the
most disdainful notice of us. The press, in few instances, spoke an encouraging word. Papers like the New
York Herald indulged in frequent flings at us, stigmatized us as Abolitionist in the disguise of philanthropists,
and tried to cover our work with all the odium that attaches to the endeavors of visionaries and fanatics.

Nor was even this the worst. Some of the negroes' most tried and trusty friends discouraged the enterprise
which Northern humanity was undertaking. One gentleman of large experience, great sagacity, and proved
earnestness, wrote from Washington: "It is my honest conviction that all ycnr efforts will do more harm than
good. I feel sure that, while you will benefit individuals, yon will, in the broad careless views which the world
will take, exhibit a disastrous failure, and furnish a very strong popular argument against any method of
emancipation."

This was distressing and disheartening. Still the work was undertaken by voluntary beneflcence alone, unaided
by Government, uncheered by public enthusiasm, unsustained by general approval.

On the 3d of March, 1862, within a fortnight after the organization of this Society, the first party of
superintendents and teachers, fifty-five in number, left New York for
Port Royal, taking with them stores of
clothing, provisions, medicines, tools, seeds, etc. Many of these persons went as volunteers, without pay, and
contributing from their own means to the work they had engaged in. During April and May ninety-three more
went down—seventy-four men, including several clergymen and physicians, and nineteen women.

In March, 1862, an act to provide for the care of abandoned property, etc., in the insurrectionary districts of
the United States became a law.

Early in May of the same year,
Brig. Gen. Saxton was appointed Military Governor for the Southern
Department. In July he assumed for the Government all that part of our work connected with the material
charge of the lands or the people in their labor on them, thereby rendering unnecessary the employment by us
of all persons as superintendents. All such were thereupon discharged or transferred to Government. By this
action our work was essentially changed in character, and assumed an aspect of greater permanency.

Let us now glance at the results of the first years' desultory, but earnest work. The First Annual Report of the
National Freedman's Relief Association, printed in New York on the 19th of Febuary, 1863, speaks of the
year's success as " not equaling the hopes of the most sanguine," but as being sufficient " greatly to cheer us,
and to encourage us to perseverance, and to redouble our efforts."

The total receipts of cotton and other merchandise from Port Royal, S. C., from February, 1862, to January,
1863,amounted to $726,984.10. The total disbursements amounted in the same time to $304,564.98, leaving
a balance in favor of the blacks of $422,419.12. The negroes thus demonstrated that they were not likely to
become a burden on the nation.

The eagerness of the blacks to learn, the report continues, " of adults and children, ia all engrossing. They
appear to seize evey available moment, harrying from their work to the school, and jealous of every diminution
of the honrs in which they can enjoy what they rightly deem their great privilege. There over three thousand
under instruction at Port Royal and the islands on the coast." The Association had thirty-four female teachers in
its employ; but was unable, from its poverty, to send more, though more were needed and asked for by Gen.
Saxton. There was great demand for books, maps, and all the other apparatus for instruction. "We were
applied to, also, for clothing of every description, for provisions, for goods of all kinds, in miscellaneous
profusion. Nothing came amiss, but the best things were clamored for most eagerly. To meet these multifarious
demands, the Association sent this first year: 91,834 Garments.

35,829 Books, pamphlets, and papers. 5,895 Yards of cloths, calicoes, muslinsheetings, etc.

In money the Treasurer reported as received from all sources collecting expenses deducted, to February, 1863
$9,003 64

To cash, salaries of superintendents and teachers, rents, freights, office expenses, etc 5,420 22

In 1865
In May, 1863, the Freedmen's Bureau went into operation, and its beneficent influence in affording protection,
promoting harmony, and restoring order, was seen almost immediately; but throughout the summer and fall
great disorganization continued, and although gradually lessening, it was not until after Christmas that a general
system of labor was adopted, and profitable relations between the landowners and the freedmen of the South
were established.

During the war our field of labor was restricted to those districts of southern country actually under military
occupation.

Peace had opened the whole country to us, and the Freedmen's Bureau had, early in the year, afforded
protection and given direction to our work. The freedmen were everywhere eager for knowledge, yet through
the want of adequate means we were obliged to confine our operations to the Atlantic slope, from Maryland to
Upper Florida. Most of the important places within those extreme" northern and » southern limits have been
blessed with schools under the auspices of this Association, extending into the interior to Tallahassee, Fla.; to
Columbus, Ga.; to Columbia and vicinity, S. C.; to Raleigh and vicinity, N. C.; and to Richmond and
Petersburg, Va.

In consequence of our withdrawal from the Valley of the Mississippi, in August, and the closing of our Asylum
at New Orleans, by order of Gen. Fullerton, in December—our school alone being continued there—there are
now but two Orphan Asylums remaining under our charge. The one at Charleston, S. C., is called the " Col.
Shaw Orphan House." It was founded by Mr. James Redpath, May 15,1865, now not eleven months since,
and yet it has received and cared for more than 230 orphan children, many of whom, in the judgment of a
gentleman recently from the South, must have perished, but for the kindly charities here bestowed.

This Asylum is highly favored with accommodations. It occupies the Memminger House, with its ample and
elegant surroundings; one of the most princely estates in Charleston.

The other Orphan Asylum is located at
Fernandina, Fla. Since its foundation by Miss Chloe Merrick, in 1862,
there have been admitted to it 150 helpless children, in all the necessary destitution of those in orphanage, with
none to succor and sustain them. Miss Merrick still devotes herself to this good work, and she has been
unremitting in her labors for the good of these pitiable relics of slavery.

Besides these we have depots for the distribution of material aid at most, if not all, the large centres of influence
occupied by our teachers. From these schools and depots immense quantities of clothing and necessary
comforts have been distributed.

As our work increased in magnitude, and with experience more system and method were developed in our
management, it was clearly shown that the various organizations, created in the different centres by the
necessities of the war, could not exist independently of each other; soliciting aid and sympathy in the same
localities, and affording relief and education in the same districts, without injurious rivalry and jealousy, it was
therefore Resolved, "That in order to best promote the great work of benevolence and justice in behalf of the
freedmen, the strength of harmonious action and the establishment of a national organization were necessary,"
and in September a union of nearly all the local Freedmen's Aid Societies was effected, by the organization of
the American Freedmen's Aid Commission, of which our Society became a constituent member.

In October, in response to an appeal from our President, a number of the ladies composing the Woman's
Central Relief Association, a branch of the Sanitary Commission, formed themselves into a Committee of
Correspondence and Organization in connection with this Association. The same wonderful efficiency which
characterized their former labors has been displayed for us, attended by similar successful results.

In January a union of the American Freedmen's Aid Commission and the American Union Commission was
effected by the organization of the American Freedmen's and Union Commissions on the basis of the
Freedmen's Bureau, as expressed in the second article of its Constitution, as follows:

"The object of this Commission is to aid and co-operate with the people of the South, without distinction of
race or color, in the improvement of their condition, upon the basis of industry, education, freedom, and
Christian morality. No schools or supply depots shall be maintained, from the benefits of which any shall be
excluded because of color." The chief influence which impelled to this union was the same urgent necessity for
an economical, single-handed, cooperative labor. National in character, and harmonious in operation, which
originally led to the formation of the American Frtedmen's Aid Commission; but there were also other
important considerations, all of which are ably set forth in the opening article of our March number of the
National Freedman.

The general tenor of the information now being received by us is of a nature to inspire us with increasing zeal in
the prosecution of our work. The best intelligence of the South appears to be slowly accepting the truth that the
educated freedman made a better neighbor and citizen through education, a nobler and truer man, is not
thereby rendered a less profitable or less reliable laborer, evidenced by legislative attempts in Tennessee,
legislative provisions for education in Florida, popular action in Georgia and Alabama, by applications for
plantation schools from various quarters, and by information through letters from teachers, superintendents, and
travelers at the South.

This change of sentiment is not, of course, universal; many lamentable examples to the contrary are exhibited
almost daily. The prejudices and convictions of an entire people, who founded their faith in security under
slavery, on the ignorance and degradation of the slave, are not to be extinguished and changed at once; but that
the changed sentiment exists at all is a source of great promise and hope, as giving to us an assurance of
protection and security for our future labors, where alone they can permanently rest, in the educated moral
sense of the representative portion of the Southern people.

One of the most gratifying thoughts connected with our work is founded in a belief that the future stimulator,
and thus the educator, of the ignorant whites of the South is to be the poor negro whom they have maltreated
and despised. As a class, they are still the most cruel and inveterate haters of the freedman; but the beginning
of an influence to be exerted hereafter, as we hope and believe, in a marked and controlling degree, is already
shown in the accounts which have recently reached us of the appearance of increased numbers of white
children in the Southern schools.

At the school of the Orphan Asylum at Fernandina, Fla., there have been some nineteen children in attendance.

Rev. B. W. Pond writes:
Newbeek, N. C., March 10,1866.

"During the past month the schools at Beaufort and Morehead have been on the increase, and are now very full.

"One gratifying feature, and bespeaking a letting up of old prejudices, and a mind opening to liberal views, is
the attendance of a number of white pupils at Miss Luckey's school, and the school in which Miss Philbrook
teaches. It was certainly a great satisfaction to see certain representatives of the poor white class, the class in
whom, as a general thing, the color prejudice is the most tenacious and unreasonable, inasmuch as their color is
the only thing they have to put them on a supposed level superior to the blacks, to see these poor destitute
people casting aside their evil humor and willing to come in and sit beside their darker fellows for a common
share with them of the learning and education."

Our financial statement, herewith subjoined, shows receipts of cash and supplies during the year to the amount
of $339,680.24, a gratifying exhibit of the steady growth of public interest in our work, but meagre and
inadequate in view of our present opportunities.

The whole South is now open to our work of education; we can put into the field 2,000 teachers, instead of
200, if the means are furnished us; our future usefulness is limited only by the want of means. We ask for
money to use in helping a people to help themselves ; and they will help themselves, will help us, if we now can
educate them aright. One single instance will suffice to show the promise of the future:

In the Freedman's Savings and Trust Company, of New York, through its various branches, there was
deposited in the month of March alone over $118,000; one year ago, the same Institution was supported by
the necessary contributions of its Trustees. Does not a sound political economy—a good sense—apart from all
considerations of philanthropy, or the claims of humanity, urge the wisdom of providing means for such a work
as ours?

As we look back over the year which has passed, we marvel at the changes which have actually occurred.
This has been peculiarly the year of victories, moral victories, without which all preceding victories would have
been vain. The doubts and fears of a year ago have disappeared in the certainties of the present. Our country,
made dearer and better by its purification, is sure to become a unit in sentiment as in laws. Her Institutions,
proving their redemp

Gas, insurance, and incidental expenses of office from April 1,1865, to April 1,1866 252 67

Paper, printing, etc., for National Freedman, from April 1,1865, to April 1,1866 326 40

Merchandise 2,093 54

Supplies distributed or sold $164,663 14

Supplies in process of distribution 30,004 59

194,667 73

Cash paid to Treasurer for supplies sold during the year 19,180 25

Cash on hand April 1,1866 18166

Total......... . $290,863 80

Supplementary Statement, including Receipts of Treasurer and Executive Committee, exhibiting the aggregate
magnitude of the work for the year.

Cash received by Executive Committee for supplies sold $35,461 05 Less amount of same paid Treasurer
19,18025

$16,280 80

Supplies received by Executive Committee 169,104 64

Cash received by Treasurer 154,294 80

Total of Receipts for the year. .$339,680 24 New York, April 1,1866.

Report of the Committee on Teachers and Publications.

We have under our supervision about 125 schools in different parts of the South. This estimate is somewhat
vague, because the term "school" is somewhat vague, some of the schools hardly meriting the name, being
rather appurtenances than institutions, while others are rather groups of schools than single ones.

The schools contain altogether on their rolls 14,048 pupils; in all the schools the average attendance is 9,991.
The number of teachers in all the schools is 222. The pupils and teachers are distributed as follows:

Pupils. Teacber.
The District of Columbia has 693 13 Maryland, ... 452 7 Virginia, .... 3,115 49

There are 7 principals of schools or groups of schools. There are 6 superintendents of districts. Of the teachers
one-eighth only are men. Of the teachers, men and women, 60 are maintained at the expense of Auxiliary
Societies in different Northern States. Of these Societies there are 33. New York has 20, Maine 7, New
Hampshire, 4, Massachusetts, 2. The banner town in this good cause is our little neighbor, Yonkers, which
maintains 7 teachers. The city of Portland is alone in supporting an equal number. The cost of maintaining
teachers varies greatly with their locality. The chief element affecting the cost everywhere is the price of board,
which in some places may be obtained for $15 per month, and in others can not be had for less than $30.
Incidental expenses are also greater in some places than in others, from obvious considerations. The average
cost of supporting a teacher during the year past, all allowances made, has been, in round figures, $500.

Besides the schools enumerated there are two Orphan Homes, one at Fernandina, Fla., and the other at
Charleston, S. C.

Although sewing is taught in most of our schools, at present the Association has but six industrial schools,
properly so entitled, located at Washington and Georgetown, D. C., Alexandria, Poplar Grove and
Petersburg, Va., and Eoanoke Island, N. C. All are believed to be under adequate direction and tuition. From
this broad summary of facts, which are not analyzed in detail, simply because the details would be more
embarrassing than instructive, and might injure the purpose which the report has in view, a distinct statement of
the whole position may be obtained.

It will be observed that the schools are very unevenly distributed through the different States. Maryland has
358 pupils and 5 teachers; Georgia has 276 pupils and 4 teachers; maintained, too, at great cost in a
community where other Societies were diligent and successful before ours went into the field. Louisiana has
only 61 pupils and 2 teachers. This field would seem to belong properly to the Western Associations.
Numerically, we are strongest in the District of Columbia, Florida, Virginia, North Carolina, and South
Carolina.

All things considered, we are strongest in the District of Columbia; strongest in numbers as proportioned to the
whole population, and much strongest in the completeness of our arrangements, the convenience of our
buildings, the organization of the classes, the efficiency of the teaching corps. We point to our Washington
schools with pride. Under the superintendence of Mr. Zelie they have fully repud all our care of them, and met
all our expectations. * In Virginia there exists so much competition 'among the different Associations, especially
in the large towns like Richmond, Petersburg, Norfolk, that the expediency of retiring from several points in
that State has been suggested frand casually entertained.

In Florida our work is well done, and it is believed that more might be done in that State another year. We
have penetrated as far as Tallahassee. But of the States, South Carolina presents for us the most encouraging
record. Thus, in Beaufort District, we have 1,127 pupils and 25 teachers; in Charleston, 987 pupils and 16
teachers; and in Columbia, 835 pupils and 10 teachers. The schools in Charleston and in Beaufort District are
in the main well organized, disciplined, and conducted. It would not be difficult to gain the supremacy in
Charleston. Columbia is all our own, and it offers an indefinite field for operations. Our admirable
superintendent there, Dr. T. G. Wright, has been importuning all winter for the means to increase his activities
and extend his work. With adequate funds we could have doubled our achievement in the very heart of South
Carolina,' and effected something of great value toward the education of the people.

These indications are made as the basis for the suggestion that henceforth the policy of concentration be
adopted rather than the policy of diffusion. A few localities firmly possessed and conscientiously developed are
better than many half-occupied or but feebly entered. A few schools in well-selected spots, well provided with
teaching apparatus, thoroughly appointed, ably officered, and completely graded, would probably effect more
in the way most desirable than many schools scantily furnished and feeblyadministered. Quality weighs more
than quantity. The withdrawal from the Valley of the Mississippi was one step toward concentration. The
withdrawal from weak spots to strong ones would be more steps in the same direction equally wise, perhaps.
It is not decided here what places it would be better to withdraw from, but it may be found judicious to
abandon Georgia, Maryland, and portions of Virginia, in case other Associations compete with us for the field,
and mass our force in Florida, the Carolinas, and the District of Columbia. This policy would be in accordance
with the tendency to unity and a new distribution of parts under one central Society, which is now gaining
favor. It would be an immense advantage, in the judgment of the Committee, if the several Associations who
are devoting themselves to the same work would agree upon the special points they would occupy, leaving to
each its own domain. As each would select for himself the points where it was strongest, it would seem as if
such an arrangement might be made without serious difficulty, and without injustice.

In connection with this subject of concentration, and bearing immediately on it, the Committee wonld suggest
the expediency of possessing lands and buildings wherever it may be done in good situations. Possession is the
only pledge of permanence. As our experience has taught us the unsettled state of the country, the hostility of
the people, the liability of the property to change hands render it quite certain that if we are to have
establishments that shall be worth keeping we must own them and the land they stand on. In some instances the
negroes have bought land and invited our assistance in erecting school-houses; in others our superintendents
have made strong representations of the wisdom, if not the absolute necessity, of doing so. A policy of
concentration which should bring our power to bear on a few commanding points would probably assist in
surmounting the pecuniary obstacles to the enterprise.

In some instances a very few planters have offered to supply buildings for teachers and for schools if we would
send the teachers. One of these calls we have answered by detaching two teachers from a post that could
spare them and sending them to a neighboring farm. The experiment is well worth trying; but it should be done
cautiously, as it might lead to the separation of teachers from our control, and the loosening of our system. If
the good faith of the planters can be guaranteed, the prudence and economy of the course wonld be evident,
and it should be pursued.

The attention of the Committee has been called several times to the question of employing colored teachers in
our schools. We have not refused to do so when we could do so with advantage. We have supplied black
teachers on demand for Maryland. At Columbia and elsewhere we have been obliged to employ black
teachers, as being obtainable on the spot, and at considerable less cost. The object, in a work like ours, should
be to obtain the very best teachers our money will procure, and to try our teachers by constantly rising
standards. That good white teachers, on the whole, are the best will hardly be disputed. It must be
remembered, too, that the men and women who go down from our Normal and High Schools carry more than
their education. They carry their race, their moral training, their .faculty, their character, the influence of
civilization, the ideas, sentiments, principles, that characterize Northern society, and which we hope will one
day characterize Southern. We want to introduce persons as well as pedagogues, and persons will be worth all
they cost.

In point of popularity among the colored people themselves, the advantage, we believe, will be on the whole,
with the whites. The Yankees have pretty much all the popularity there is. The sympathy between the Northern
and Southern blacks would not seem to be very strong; and the respect of Southern blacks for each other is
hardly firm enough to rest a system or a policy on. We want, not schools merely, but Northern schools,
Northern men and women down South, teaching, mingling with the people, and instituting the North there
among the old populations. In this way we civilize all at once, by communicating simultaneously all the chief
intellectual elements of civilization. Still we would by all means encourage the blacks to establish schools of
their own, officer them, support them, take the whole charge of them. The quicker they do this the better.

Before entering on the work of another season it is very strongly recommended that the ground be carefully
surveyed by competent men with a view to discover the best situations, estimating the number of children to be
provided for, making provision for school-houses and homes, and generally preparing the way for work.
Because this was not done last year, much embarrassment was caused tnd much time was lost. Our teachers
were sent late to the field of their operations. Even then they were obliged to wait till rooms could be furnished
and boarding-houses could be procured. There was a great deal of inconvenience, a great deal of annoyance,
some little suffering; and the subsequent removals that were rendered necessary occasioned an uncomfortable
degree of awkwardness and also of expense. The withdrawal of troops and the restoration of properties to
their owners were another source of difficulty which the Committee had to contend against; but this would have
been diminished had the ground been surveyed and prepared beforehand.

NEW YORK REPORT OF THE TEACHERS' COMMITTEE. (American Freedmen, May, 1866)
We are permitted to make some extracts from the report of the Teachers' Committee of the New York
Branch, showing their operations for the past year. This report, with those of the Executive and Finance
Committee, are about to be published in pamphlet form:

We have under our supervision something more than 100 schools in different parts of the South. This estimate
is somewhat vague, because the term school is somewhat vague, some of the schools hardly meriting the name,
being rather appurtenances than institutions, while others are rather groups of schools than single ones.

The schools contain altogether on their rolls, pupils, 13,744; in all the schools the average attendance is 9,677.
The number of teachers in all the schools is 213.

There are 7 principals of schools or groups ot schools. There are 6 superintendents of districts. Of the teachers
24 are men; 189 are women. Of the 213 teachers, men and women, 60 are maintained at the expense of
auxiliary societies in different Northern States. Of these societies there are 33. New York has 20, Maine 7,
New Hampshire 4, Massachusetts 2. The banner town in this good cause is our little neighbor, Yonkers, which
maintains 7 teachers. The city of Portland is alone in supporting an equal number. The cost of maintaining
teachers varies greatly with their locality. The average cost of supporting a teacher during the year past, all
allowances made, has been in round figures $500.

Besides the schools enumerated there are two orphan homes and four industrial schools, all in a flourishing
condition.

It will be observed that the schools are very unevenly distributed through the different States. Maryland has
358 pupils and five teachers; Georgia has 276 pupils and four teachers; maintained, too, at great cost in a
community where other societies were diligent and successful before ours went into the field. Louisiana has
only 61 pupils and two teachers. This field would seem to belong properly to the Western associations.
Numerically we are strongest in the District of Columbia (901 pupils, 12 teachers), Florida (1,549 pupils, 25
teachers), Virginia (2,845 pupils, 48 teachers), North Carolina (3,738 pupils, 51 teachers), and South
Carolina (4,016 pupils, 65 teachers).

All things considered, we are strongest in the District of Columbia; strongest in numbers as proportioned to the
whole population, and much strongest in the completeness of our arrangements, the convenience of our
buildings, the organization of the classes, the efficiency of the teaching corps. We point to our Washington
schools with pride. Under the superintending of Mr. Lelie they have fully repaid all our care of them, and met
all our expectations.

In Virginia there exists so much competition among the different associations, especially in the large towns like
Richmond, Petersburg, Norfolk, that the expediency of retiring from Beveral points in that State has been
suggested and casually entertained.

In Florida our work is well done, and it is believed that more might be done in that State another year. We
have penetrated as far as Tallahassee. But of the States, South Carolina presents for us the most encouraging
record. Thus, in Beaufort District, we have 1,127 pupils and 25 teachers; in Charleston, 987 pupils and 16
teachers; and in Columbia, 835 pupils and 10 teachers. The schools in Charleston and in Beaufort District are
in the main well organized, disciplined, and conducted. It would not be difficult to gain the supremacy in
Charleston. .Columbia is all our own, and it offers an indefinite field for operations. Our admirable
superintendent there, Dr. T. G. Wright, has been importuning all winter for the means to increase his activities
and extend his work. With adequate funds we could have doubled our achievement in the very heart of South
Carolina, and effected something of great value towards the education of the people.

These indications are made as the basis for the suggestion that henceforth the policy ol concentration be
adopted rather than the policy of diffusion. A few localities firmly possessed and conscientiously developed are
better than many half occupied or but feebly entered. A few schools in well selected spots, well provided with
teaching apparatus, thoroughly appointed ably officered, and completely graded, would probably effect more
in the way most desirable than many schools scantily furnished and feebly administered. Quality weighs more
than quantity. The withdrawal from the Valley of the Mississippi was one step towards concentration The
withdrawal from weak spots to strong ones would be more steps in the same direction equal ly wise, perhaps.
It is not decided here whai places it would be better to withdraw from, but it may be found judicious to
abandon Georgia Maryland, and portions of Virginia in,case other associations compete with us for the field,
anc mass our force in Florida, the Carolinas, anc the District of Columbia. This policy would be in accordance
with the tendency to unity and a new distribution of parts under one central so ciety, which is now gaining
favor. It would be an immense advantage, in the judgment of the Committee, if the several associations who
are devoting themselves to the same work woulc agree upon the special points they would occu py, leaving to
each its own domain. As eacl would select for itself the points where it wa strongest, it would seem as if such
an arrange ment might be made without serious difficulty and without injustice.

The experience of the past year will doubt less assist us to perfect our system of delt gated authority and
responsibility. We hav suffered all along from a defective hierarchy

ill these embarrassments, however, are vastly ess than they were aforetime; and in spite of 11 difficulties,
perplexities, and delays, uncerain tenure, scant accommodation, hostile prejudice, misunderstanding, and
inexperience, the work has gone on well; it has made great adance. Our teachers, with very few exceptions,
ave done credit to themselves, to the associaion, and to the cause. Some have acquitted hemselves nobly,
enduring great privations or duty's sake. Some mistakes had been made, but they were not beyond correction.
Dne or two disagreeable passages have occurred, ut they were passed without danger. Our teachers have
been able, faithful, zealous, and discreet. They have gained the confidence of the black people, and, so far as
was possible, of the whites.

None have died in the service, but few have been sick. With now and then a local exceplon, incidental and of
small consequence, they lave lived peacefully and amicably together, imulous only of deserving, in the work.

In view of the probable assignment of more definite departments to the several associations to which to draw
supplies and teachers, it is gratifying to note the increased interest taken n the education of the freedmen by our
own State. New York, as has been remarked, has twenty auxiliary societies that support thirtyseven teachers.
From all the State, gome fifty teachers have been sent to the association, and they have not been inferior in
general to those that haver been supplied by other States. The more the Ladies' Committee extend their
organizations, the more teachers we shall have from the State. There are already more than 350 of these
auxiliary societies, formed under the auspices of these indefatigable women, whose work, already so
invaluable, promises to become in the future a most important feature in the general enterprise.
O. B. Frothingham, Chairman.

Authorized Agents of the Association. (National Freedmen, 1866)
IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK.
Rev. A. H. Boyle, Lecturing and Organizing Agent, Seneca County.
Col. P. B. Buckingham, Lecturing and Organizing Agent, Tioga County.
Rev. Walter R. Long, Lecturing and Organizing Agent, Rensselaer County.
Col. James Lewis, Lecturing and Organizing Agent, Cortland County.
Rev. A. D. Morton, Lecturing and Organizing Agent, Niagara County, • Mr. C. G. G. Paine, Lecturing and
Organizing Agent, Chemung County. ,
Rev. Aug. Root, Lecturing and Organizing Agent, Fulton County.
Capt. H. G. H. Tarr, Lecturing and Organizing Agent, Tompkins County.
Rev. E. Brett, Collecting Agent, Duchess County.
Mr. S. A. Stoddard, Collecting Agent, Rockland County.

IN THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT.
Rev. Erastus Cotton, Lecturing and Organizing Agent, Hartford County.

IN THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY.
Rev. Wm. Bradley, Lecturing and Organizing Agent, Essex County.

Whoever claims hereafter to be an Agent of this Association, if his name is not in the above list (unless he has a
Certificate of Appointment dated subsequently to the latest issue of this journal) is an IMPOSTOR .

By the terms of our agreement with most of these gentlemen, hospitality extended to them lessens the cost of
our work,

ELLEN COLLINS, Chairman.
CRAMMOND KENNEDY, Secretary.

SUPERINTENDENTS AND AGENTS.
C. Thurston Chase, General Superintendent for Virginia.

Bev. Benjamin W. Pond, Superintendent Eastern District of North Carolina, P. O., Newbern.
Mrs. Benjamin W. Pond, Assistant ""

8. K. Whiting, Superintendent Second District of Virginia "Petersburg.

Maj. Henry E. Alvord, Supt. Beaufort District of South Carolina N. 0., Beaufort.

A. E. Newton, Superintendent of District of Columbia, P. 0., 343 20th Street, Washington.
J. H. Zelie, Principal Free Grammar School at Washington, D. 0., Cor. 14th and M. Sts.

Mrs. H. C. Fisher, Principal and Teacher, Norfolk, Va
.
Mr. D. Edson Smith, Principal and Teacher, Elizabeth City, N. C.

Mr. A. E. Kinne, Superintendent of Schools for Florida, Fernandina.

Mr. John Walker, Principal of Chimborazo Schools, Richmond, Va.

Mr. T. G. Wright, Superintendent, Columbia, S. C.

Mr. Wm. McLaurin, Disbursing Agent for Clothing, Wilmington, N. C.
Mrs. S. P. Freeman, Principal and Disbursing Agent, Roanoke Island, N. C

Mr. Charles A. Libby, Superintendent and Teacher, Alexandria, Va.

TEACHERS AND ORPHAN HOMES.
FLORIDA ORPHANS ASYLUM. Fernandina, Florida. Founded, 1862.
Miss. Chloe Merrick, Superintendent.
Mrs. A. E. Kinne, Assistant Matron.
Number entered since foundation, 150. Number in at last report, 50.

COL. SHAW ORPHAN HOME. Charleston, S. C. Founded April, 1865.
Mr. T. Pillsbury, Superintendent.
Mrs. A. T. Pillsbury, Matron.
Miss I. S. Cooley, Assistant Matron and Teacher.
Number entered since foundation, May 14,1866, 291. Number at last report, 95.

Mrs. Catharine B. Houghton, Matron of Teachers' Home, Beaufort, S. C.

"Susan A. Zelie, Washington, D. C.

"D. C. Corwin, Norfolk, Va.
"S. K. Whiting Petersburg, Va.

Mrs. Sojourner Truth, Visitor and Distributing Agent, Washington, D. C.

Miss Sarah A. Sampson, Teacher to the Orphan Asylum, New Orleans, La.

Miss Lucy Doolittle, Principal of Industrial School, Georgetown, D. C. 120 pupils—av. at. 17.
Mr. Scott Gwathmey, Assistant at Chimborazo Schools, Richmond, Va.

Officers, January 1867
February 22, 1862.— Incorporated March 23, 1866. OFFICE No. 76 JOHN STREET, NEW YORK.
Francis George Shaw, President ;

Wm. C. Bryant, John Jay, Dr. E. Parmly, Vice-Presidents;

Joseph B. Collins (40 Wall Street), Treasurer;

George C. Ward, Recording Secretary;

Rev. Crammond Kennedy, Corresponding Sec'y.

Executive Committee.— Henry A. Dike, Chairman; Edward F. Davison, Charles Collins, J. M. McKim, Rev.

Lyman Abbott, E. C. Estes, Secretary.

Finance Committee.— George C. Ward, Chairman; E. M. Kingsley, N. P. Hallowell. Committee On
Teachers And Publications.— J. M. McKim, Chairman ; Rev. O. B. Frothingham, Rev. John McCiintock, D.
D., George F. Noyes, Rev. Crammond Kennedy, Nathan Bishop, LL.D., Rev. E. H. Canfleld, D.D., Rev.
Daniel Wise, I).D. Legal Adviser.— William Allen Butler. Ladies' Committee On Correspondence And
Organization— Room No. 22 Bible House.— Miss Ellen Colling

Chairman; Mrs. Joseph Sampson, Mrs. Chas. R. Lowell, Jr., Miss Sarah M. Hitchcock, Miss Fanny Russell.
Rev. Crammond Kennedy, Secretary. Authorized Agents Of The New York Branch.— We commend the
following gentlemen, in their, respective districts to the confidence, hospitality, and co-operation of all who
desire the real reconstruction of the South on - the basis of Industry, Education, Freedom, and Christian
Morality": Rev. Wm. Bradley, Eev.John Bradehnw, Rev. E. Brett, Col. P. B. Buckingham, Eev. BrsntnB
Colton, Eev. W. R. Long, Mr. J. G.Longley, Rev. A. D. Morton, Capt. H. G. H. Tarr.

Florida Report December, 1866
Of our sixteen teachers in that State, three are alone: Miss Henry, at Palatka; Miss Bent, at Gainesville; and
Miss Reford, on Mr. Knapp's plantation, near Micanopy. The first two are sowing where such good seed
would fall from no other hands. They have many trials to encounter, but their lot is to be envied. They aee
expounding the meaning of freedom by their lives to hundreds who but for them would scarcely know that they
are free. These are the women of whom the Republic should be proud —as proud as of her bravest soldiers—
for with none of the excitements of war or the inspirations of fame, they are showing such heroic courage and
devotion as are seldom displayed on the field of battle. The following is an illustration of military promptness
and Christian cheerfulness in the discharge of duty: "Rev. Crammond Kennedy:

"Dear Sir: Last Friday morning I received a letter from you saying that duty seemed to call me to Gainesville. I
immediately made preparations for my departure, and at one o'clock that night I was on my way to my old
field of labor.

"I was very pleasantly situated at
Jacksonville, and think I could have made myself very useful there. Our
schools had just been graded. I had the grammar department, and had the prospect of having a fine school.
Nevertheless, I am more than grateful to you for sending me to Gainesville. The colored people are delighted
to see me back again.

"Very respectfully, Cath. R. Bent. "Gainesville, Dec. 7th, 1866."

New York Report (American Freedmen Vol II, Number 1, April 1867)
My Dear Mr. Abbott :—

Having but a few minutes to spare from the press of business, before starting on my Southern tour, my
promised statement must be brief.

Since Oct. 1st, 1866, when the present school year began, we have put 160 teachers in the field, of whom
153 are at present actively engaged. Twenty-four (24) are in the District of Columbia, seven (7) in Maryland,
one (1) in Delaware, forty-one (41) in Virginia, twenty-three (23) in North Carolina, one (1) in Tennessee,
thirty-nine (39) in South Carolina, and seventeen (17) in Florida. Fifteen (15) of this force are colored. Of the
160 set to work, 80 belong to the State of New York, 22 to Massachusetts, 15 to Maine, 14 to Connecticut,
10 to New Hampshire, 7 to South Carolina, 5 to Vermont, 3 to Virginia, 1 to Tennessee, 1 to New Jersey, 1
to Pennsylvania, and 1 to Rhode Island. They have reported 7,999 enrolled pupils in day schools, 1,369 in
night schools, and 2,765 in Sunday schools. About 883 women and girls are receiving instruction in sewing.

This work, and these statements do not describe, but merely suggest; it is all the more gratifying, because at the
beginning of the school year the Association was in debt, and its prospects looked so dark to some of its
leading members that they thought of disbanding-. But instead of this, retrenchment and a special effort to raise
funds became the order of the day. Last September three Secretaries did the work of the Association, Rev.
Wm. G. Hawkins being Cor. Sec., Rev. J. J. Woolsey, Sec'y of the Teachers' Committee, and the writer,
Sec'y of the Committee on Correspondence and Organization. The first two retiring, after having rendered
faithful and valuable services, the writer was chosen to fill the vacancy. By this appointment the whole of an
immense amount of work was thrown again on the Ladies Committee, but their energy, diligence, and
devotion, made them equal to its demands, and eminently successful in its prosecution. New Agents had been
employed, suitable districts in the home territory had been apportioned to them, and new instructions,
commissions and forms for reports had been issued. As a result of the vis and system of the Committee, the
Auxiliary Societies which it organized, are sustaining about two-thirds of the teachers in the pay of the
Association. The monthly letters of these supported teachers make their constituents more interested in our
work because better acquainted with it. We are glad to believe that most of them will keep their
representatives in the field next year; and that societies not represented now, will be from next October.

"The principles of the Commission grow in public favor as the public understands them. It is neither hard to
see, nor difficult to believe that common unsectarian schools will do for the South what they have done for the
North, and that it is as fraught with danger to establish sectarian schools for the secular education of the
children there as it would be here. I am a Baptist, but I would not like to have the common schools of this city
known and eonducted as such, or the system supplanted by the parochial, for then we could not argue with
Roman Catholics and would tall behind them In the race of competition. The Sunday schools reported by our
teachers show that Christianity makes missionaries of its subjects when they are on missionary ground. We
know that out of school hours there are no better missionaries—in the church use of the term—than the noble
women whom we commission as teachers.

"But it is almost time for '
The Leo' to sail, and I must off to Savannah."

Cordially yours,

Crammond Kennedy,

Cor. See'y. New York, March 5th, 1867

                           
Primary Documents and Other Links
See Original Teachers of the Port Royal Experiment

See Auxiliary Societies of the New York Branch

See list of teachers and locations for 1863

See Books and Materials used in Freedmen's Schools

National Freedman's Relief Association from Mrs. M. L. Hayworth - Dec 5, 1862

First Annual Report February 19th,1863

Chloe Merrick Report to National Freedmen - March 24, 1863

Miss C. D. Connant Report to National Freedman - March 28, 1863

Sarah Parker and Mira M. Fowler Report from Ladies Island - March 31, 1863

Report of the Misses Peck (Beaufort) -  March 31, 1863

C. C. Leigh's Visit to Port Royal - April, 1863

Letter from Fernandina - April, 1863

Ella H. Ripley, Bythewood Ladies Island - April 29, 1863

Julia M. Bartlett, St. Augustine - April 30, 1863

Ned Loyd White, April 30, 1863

National Freedman's Monthly Paper May, 1863

Veranda School, Perryclear Plantation, Beaufort - May, 1863

Teaching the 1st South Carolina (33rd USCT), May 5, 1863

Clergymans Committee Minutes - May 7, 1863

Caroline Haynes, A Former Slave, May 20th, 1863

National Freedman's Monthly Paper June, 1863

Resignation of Rev. S. H. Tyng  - June, 1863

Request for Additional Teachers by Rev. Mansfield French  - July 30, 1863

Asylum for Orphans in Fernandina - August 14, 1868

Report National Freedmen Relief Association, July, August and September, 1863

Hospital at Beaufort (July, August and September 1863)

The Freedmen's Record - A. F. Pillsbury - Mitchelville - September 24, 1864

The Freedmen's Record - E. P. Breck - December 25, 1864

The Freedmen's Record - James P. Blake - December 19, 1864

Freedmen's and Union Commission - January 5, 1865

National Freedmans Relief Appeal for Aid - January 6, 1865

The Freedmen's Record - Freedmen in Georgia - February, 1865

The Freedmen's Record - A. F. Pillsbury  - Refugees from Sherman's march - March 7, 1865

James Redpath - Charleston - March 9, 1865

G. Pillsbury - Charleston - March 10, 1865

James Redpath - Charleston Schools - April, 1865

J. P. Blake - Edisto Island - April, 1865

Oglethorpe School of Savannah The Freedmen's Record, May, 1865

Southern Relief Committee, December 4, 1865

Union League Club - December 21, 1865

National Freedman's Relief Broadside Clothing Appeal Winter 1866

Florida Report, May 1866

Teacher Deaths in the Field (American Missionary Association and National Freedmen's Association)

See  
Officers New York Branch American Freedmen Union Commission May, 1866

See
Teachers from New York by county 1867

C Thurston Chase Report to National Freedmen August 7, 1867
Rev. Mansfield French
Frances George Shaw
William Cullen Bryant
Return to Dr. Bronsons St. Augustine
History
Chloe Merrick
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1862-May, 1863