The city of Jacksonville is beautifully situated on the magnificent St. Johns river, about twenty-two miles from the Atlantic
as the stream flows. The Indian name was Wacca Pilatka -- "the cows' crossing over". Its water front is in the shape of a
crescent, the river changing its course twice within the city limits and in a distance of three miles. The harbor is naturally
superb, and time will see Jacksonville one of the large cities of the United States. It is the northern terminus of the
Florida East Coast Railway where the connection is made with the Atlantic Coast Line, Seaboard Air Line, Southern
Railway, Georgia Southern & Florida Railway and the two coast wise steamship lines. The train station was on the west
end of the business section of the town. By 1912 street cars were available and open cabs for 25 cents per person. As
a port on the Atlantic ocean it is the farthest port west on the same longitude of Cleveland, Ohio

The British Period.
This had been the Kings Road crossing in the British period from the St. Mary's River to New Smyrna. The British
granted the land to the Marquis of Hastings which was 20,000 acres between McGirt's Creek and Trout Creek. In 1774
john Bartram mentions a public ferry at the site.

Second Spanish Period
The ford at the St. Johns was called "Pass of San Nicholas" by the Spanish. John H. McIntosh occupied the land in about
1790 but in 1794 he was arrested by the Spanish and sent to Havanna for a year. After his release he returned to
Florida with others who attacked and destroyed the Spanish post at St. Nicholas along with the Spanish boats on the

Later he settled with the Spanish and was granted lands near San Nicholas where he raised cotton.

On January 3, 1791, Robert Pritchard obtained a grant from Governor Queseda for 450 acres of land on the north side
of the St. Johns opposite Fort St. Nicholas. They would be driven away in the 1812 Patriot revolution.

William Jones, on February 14, 1793 was granted 216 acres in what is today South Jacksonville. The Spanish reclaimed
the land calling him a rebel and gave the grant to William Hendricks on May 18, 1797.

In 1812 the Patriot War began. Freebooters and the U. S. Army marched into Spanish Florida to take the area away
from Spain. John McIntosh was chosen governor. The Spanish commander of Fernandina surrendered and the U. S.
flag was raised over the fort. The Patriots and U. S. Army regulars attempted to take St. Augustine but were unable. San
Nicholas was the new headquarters for the Patriot and United States camp of 40 calvary and numbers of infantry and
rangers. The surrounding area through the St. Johns river area was pillaged and destroyed. (The U. S. was later held
responsible for the damage.) The "war" ended in 1813 with the withdraw of U. S. forces.

In 1816 Lewis Z. Hogan married Dona Maria Suarez Taylor and moved to her land grant of 200 acres (she received the
land grant on the death of her husband Purnal Taylor who was killed in the Patriot war) on the site of the city. The ferry
was established in 1820.

L. Z. Hogans and John Masters were the first settlers in the immediate area of San Nicholas after the Patriot war. John
Bradly arrived in 1818. He farmed and operated a ferry.

Early American Period
An inn was opened in 1822 by John Brady. Isaiah D. Hart moved to this area and ran a ferry across the St. Johns river
at a place now called by the Americans as Cowford. By June 1822 he had developed town plans for a city named after
General Andrew Jackson the Military Governor of Florida. The land was surveyed by D. S. H. Miller the former Captain
of the Rural Militia of the St. Johns River, District of St. Nicholas, and Deputy Surveyor of the old Spanish post of San
Nicholas. The first store was open by Dawson & Buckles. Dawson & Buckles would build the first frame house in the area
and have Mrs. Sarah Waterman, a widow, run it as a boarding house.

Duval County was created August 12, 1822. On December 16, 1822 the first county court convened at Jacksonville for
county business. Thomas Reynolds, presiding, Thomas Reynolds, William G. Dawson, Rigdon Brown and Britton Knight
were the judges. George Gibbs was the clerk of the court. James Dell was the first sheriff of Duval County and Daniel C.
Hart. Daniel  Hart became the second sheriff and the U. S. Deputy Marshal. The people that directed Duval County for
the first term were John L. Doggett, F. Bethune, and John Houston who were appointed December 30, 1824. The first
regular court was convened on December 1, 1823 presided over by Joseph L. Smith (later the Mayor of St. Augustine
and the father of Confederate General E. Kirby Smith). In 1825 the first court house was raised.

The first mayor was elected in 1832. In 1859 Jacksonville was chartered as a city. It was the state's major port where
timber goods and cotton were exported. The jail was built next. (both of these were destroyed in

Who was the founder of Jacksonville?
Many people could have this title, but the honor should probably go to Isaiah D. Hart. He would live to see the town grow
to more than 2,000. He lived until 1861 and was buried in a vault at the northeast corner of State and Laura Streets. His
grave was marked with the following:

"When I am dead and in my grave,
And these bones are all rotten;
When this you see, remember me,
That I may not be forgotten."

In 1901 after the great fire his remains were removed to Evergreen Cemetery.

Early Churches in Jacksonville
Before 1825 church services were held in John Warren's store as non-denominational. Jacksonville was on the
Methodist circuit of Rev. John Jerry by 1823/24. He traveled from St. Augustine through Cowford. By 1829 Rev. Isaac
Boring was attending an organized Methodist society. St. Pauls was organized and by 1858 a large building was
erected. The Episcopalians held their first service on April 12, 1829 with Rev. Raymond A. Henderson from St.
Trinity Episcopal. The Parish was officially organized in 1834. The leaders of the parish were William J. Mills,
Samuel L. Burritt, Robert Biglow and Harrison R. Blanchard. St. John's Church was established by this group. The
cornerstone was laid on April 24th, 1842 by Rev. Christopher Edwards Gladsden the Bishop of South Carolina and
consecrated by Rev. Stephen Elliott the Bishop of Georgia in 1851. This building was destroyed at the end of the U. S.
Army occupation on March 29, 1863. The Roman Catholic parish was established in 1857. Fathers Claude Rampon and
Patrick Hackett from the
Cathedral in St. Augustine were visiting priests. A building was also established between
1848-51 (burned also on March 28, 1863.) The first resident priest was Rev. William Hamilton from Savannah. The
Baptist came to Jacksonville in July 1838 with Rev. James McDonald and Rev. Ryan Frier. The charter members
consisted of Rev. James McDonald, his wife, Elias G. Jaudon and wife and Peggy a slave of Elias G. Jaudon and
Bacchus a slave of William Edwards. In 1840 the Baptist erected their first church. The Baptist sold this church to the
Methodists in 1846. They built a small brick church on Myrtle Avenue. This church was used by pickets and outpost by
the U. S. Army during the Civil War. By February 23, 1861 they had built another church on Church street. After the
battle of Olustee this building became a U. S. Army hospital. After the war the Baptist church split and the white church
became Tabernacle (later reverting back to 1st Baptist) and the African American congregation became Tabernacle.
Before the war the congregation was 40 white and 250 African American. The Presbyterians incorporated on March 2,
1840. The first church building was constructed about 1857 or 1859. Rev. A. W. Sproull was the pastor from 1857-58.
Rev. J. H. Myers from St Augustine (
Presbyterians in St. Augustine) from 1835 to 1859 occasionally preached at
Jacksonville. Rev. James Little was the pastor before the Civil War. He enlisted in the Confederate army and did not
return to the ministry.

Duval County Officials 1834
Isaiah D. Hart - Clerk C. C.
Albert G. Phillips - Sheriff
George Bearnning - Coroner
James Hoskins - Surveyor

Daniel Griffith Ambler
Daniel Ambler was born in Ogdensburg, N. Y. on July 15, 1842. He was educated in Geneva and later at Yale. In 1847
he was taken to Jacksonville (at the age of five) by his parents. His parents were Daniel Cooley Ambler and Lura
Adelaide Moss.  In the Civil War he was a private in the Second Florida cavalry under Capt. J. J. Dickison. In the 1870s
he formed a private bank in Jacksonville and in 1882 established the banking house of Ambler, Marvin & Stockton. The
firm established the Bank of Tampa (later the First National Bank of Tampa). Ambler was one of the builders of the first
railroad to St. Augustine (
See railroad) and the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West line to Palatka. He was president of the
Atlantic Lumber business. He also served as the President of the Board of Trade. He was behind the effort to deepen
the St. Johns river to allow ships of sixteen to seventeen feet depth to pass the bar. In 1896 he was a candidate of the
Gold Democrats in Florida and a vestryman in St. John's Episcopal church. In 1868 he married Clarissa Butler Coventry
of Utica, N. Y.

Jacksonville House (Corner of Main and Newnan Streets) (The News, January 16, 1846)
The subscriber having recently fitted up the above establishment, with a view to the greater convenience and
accommodation of those whom ill health or pleasure might attract to this portion of Florida, solicits the patronage of the
public, trusting that none, who may favor him, will find anything requisite to their comfort neglected.

The healthiness of Jacksonville---its protection from the harsh sea breezes and its easiness of access from any point,
have always secured it the reputation of being the most advantageous place in East Florida, for the resort of invalids,
during the winter season. to such persons, he offers accommodations, which he hopes will prove acceptable, and as
medical advice, of the highest order, can be commanded in the town, they may rely upon the most careful attention.

As visitors from the North have occasionally delayed their coming, under the impression, that the house was filled, the
subscriber takes this opportunity to assure such, in future, that, in that case, he can always provide them temporarily
with comfortable accommodations in the town.

Oliver Wood.
Jacksonville, Dec. 19, 1845.

72nd Anniversary of American Independence (The News, July 2, 1847)
The citizens of Jacksonville and its vicinity, are respectfully invited to co-operate with the Committee of Arrangements in
the celebration of the National birth day of our country, and seventy-second Anniversary of American Independence,
which will take place on Monday next, 5th inst.

The Declaration of Independence will be read by Wm. B. Lancaster, Esq., and an Oration delivered by Chas. P. Cooper,

A procession will be formed at Wood's Hotel, at TEN o'clock, A. M., from whence it will proceed to the Methodist
Episcopal Church, where, after the throne of Grace being addressed by the Rev. Mr. Graham, an Ode (composed for
the occasion) will be sung---the Declaration of Independence read, and the Oration delivered; after which, there will be
another Ode (composed for the occasion) sung, and the usual Benediction performed.

A Dinner will be provided by Mr. O. Wood, at the Hotel, which will be on table at 1/2 past 2 o'clock, P. M., where Dr. H. D.
Holland, will preside as President, and Major C. H. Pelot, as Vice-President.

The Procession will take the line of march as follows:

1. Committee of Arrangements.
2. Reverend Clergy.
3. Orator and Reader.
4. Honorable Intendant and Councilmen.
5. Strangers.
6. Citizens.

A. M. Reed,
J. M. Pons,
H. H. Gunby,
J. W. Bryant,
T. O. Holmes,
C. H. Pelot,
J. H. H. Bours,
O. Hart,
W. Alsop,
A. B. Hazzard,
Committee of Arrangements.

N. B. The pews of the West isle of the Church will be reserved for the Ladies. Those of he East and centre isle (except
two front ones for the singers) for citizens generally, as also the gallery.
Jacksonville, July 2d, 1847.

Come and Partake with Us.
All those who are desirous to celebrate the seventy-second anniversary of the Independence of the United States of
America, are respectfully invited to attend a Public Dinner, on temperance principles, at the shop of J. a. Barbee, in
Jacksonville, on Monday, the 5th day of July, at 2 o'clock, P. M.
Thos. Ledwith,
J. A. Barbee,
robt. Jack,
Thos B. Bellows,
Wm. Grothe,
Committee of Arrantements. Jacksonville, July 2d, 1847.

Louis Coxetter (future Captain of the Jeff Davis) places an ad in the Florida News
Twenty-five dollars reward.
Runaway in November last my negro woman Hannah. She is about 5 ft., 7 or 8 inches high, black, no front teeth and
about 40 years of age. Hannah has a mother in Newnansville or Tallahassee known by the name of Mary Ann Sanchez,
formerly the property of Roman Sanchez of Newnansville. The above reward will be given upon her being lodged in any
jail where I can get her or upon being delivered to me at Palatka or Jacksonville.
Louis M. Coxetter.
Jacksonville, June 5, 1852

Getting to Tallahassee
In the 1850s to get to Tallahassee one had to take the stage. The trip took 3 days by the Central Stage Line. A
newspaper ad ran as follows:

Central State Line
From Jacksonville to Tallahassee Semi-Weekly.

The proprietor takes pleasure in announcing to the public that he has just placed upon the route a new and splendid
FOUR HORSE COACH and that he is prepared to convey passengers through in the shortest possible time. He has
relays of the best horses at different points, so that no more time is lost than is necessary for their change. The state
leaves Jacksonville every Sunday and Wednesday afternoon, immediately after the arrival of the steamers from
Savannah and returns in time to connect with them on their return trips. These steamers connect with others at
Savannah for Charleston and New York, thus affording the travelers from the North and others visiting Tallahassee or
interior towns of Florida a speedy transit. A coach connects with this line to and from the White Sulphur Springs in
Hamilton County.
Fernandez, Bisbee & Co., Agents

Judson House
The Judson House was built in 1853 by A. J. Day of Damarisotta, Maine. It was opened for business on November of
1854. It was 136 feet front on Bay street and 136 on Julia, four stories high containing 110 rooms two parlors, a reading
room, spacious office, a large dining room . It had two piazzas, lower and upper on both fronts, making over 500 feet of
piazza front. The ground below Bay street on the river front belonged to the hotel and was used as a garden to grow
vegetables. The hotel burned on March 11, 1862.

Buffington Hotel
Buffington (Jacksonville) Hotel on the corner of Adams and Newnan streets. The hotel was renovated  with twenty more
rooms allowing for one hundred and fifty guests. The front was over five hundred feet with piazzas in the front and rear.
The hotel burned in 1859.

Other Early Hotels
The Taylor house was on the corner of Bay and Market streets. Mrs. Taylor was the proprietor. The Crespo House was
on the corner of Ocean and Adams. It was kept by Mrs. Crespo. The Coy House was kept by Mrs. Coy on the corner of
Ocean and Monroe Streets.

Small Pox 1853
In 1853 smallpox came to Jacksonville. The carrier was J. W. Bryant who contracted it somewhere in Georgia. He
returned to Jacksonville and stayed at the Buffington House at that time the top hotel in Jacksonville where it spread
among the top members of Jacksonville's society. From there it spread without regard to class.

Yellow Fever 1857
An attack of yellow fever occurred in the fall of 1857. Victims included the rector W. Bours of St. John's Episcopal.

The Railroads Come to Jacksonville
The first railroad was the Florida, Atlantic and Gulf Central from Jacksonville to Alligator (Lake City). The ground was
broken in March, 1857. Dr. A. S. Baldwin was president for two years. The road reached Lake City on March 13, 1860.
The train was pulled by a locomotive named "Jacksonville."

Jacksonville in the Civil War
In 1860 the population was 2,118, the lumber interest had assumed important proportions, and, as a shipping point for
all Florida produce, Jacksonville was without rival. The Civil War checked this era of prosperity.

. Jacksonville would change hands four times before the end of the war when it was a Union occupied town. The first was
on March 11, 1862 when the U. S. Navy gunboats (
Ottawa, Seneca, and Pembia) crossed the bar of the St. Johns. The
troops were withdrawn in April. In October it was captured again in October of 1862 and again abandoned. In March
1863 it was captured by the
33rd USCT (and the first companies of the 34th USCT under Colonel Thomas Wentworth
Higginson and Colonel James Montgomery. It was also abandoned in a month. The town was finally taken again on
February 7, 1864 and held to the end of the war.

The Confederate authorities garrisoned the place, but no considerable measures were taken for its defence. On March
11, 1862. Besides the
Ottawa, Seneca, and Pembina several lighter draft vessels joined the squadron. The city
authorities peacefully surrendered the city. The small Confederate force that had been in possession retreated to the
interior. Lieutenant T. H. Stevens commanded the United States squadron.

Fortifications were erected and it was announced that the place would be permanently held by United States forces.
Under this assurance a meeting of citizens, held on March 20th, repudiated the ordinance of secession, and called for a
convention to reorganize a State government under the laws of the United States. Four days afterward, March 24th,
there was another meeting, pursuant to adjournment, at which a call for a convention was issued in due form.

Notwithstanding all this, however, there came an order on April 10th, withdrawing the whole force, and sending it North
on what was deemed more important service. Many of the inhabitants who had declared their allegiance to the United
States Government feared to remain, and were given transportation to the North.

On October 4th of the same year Jacksonville was again occupied for a short time by a Federal force under General
Brannan, and again abandoned.

An expedition, consisting of the First Regiment of South Carolina Volunteers, Colonel T. W. Higginson commanding and
a portion of the Second South Carolina Volunteers, under Colonel Montgomery, reoccupied Jacksonville on March 10,
1863. These troops were African Americans, lately slaves. They were the first regiment of colored troops organized in
the service of the United States. Jacksonville was at this time merely a picket station, a considerable body of
Confederate troops being encamped some eight miles to the westward. The purpose of this expedition, as stated in the
report of General Saxton, was to establish a base of operations in Florida, and harass the enemy more by inviting
enlistments of negroes than by active operations. The three transports conveying the troops came up the river under
convoy of a gunboat. No opposition was met with, the transports made fast to the wharves, and the men jumped ashore
without waiting for the gang-plank. There was much consternation among the few remaining inhabitants, on the
unexpected arrival of the dreaded negro soldiers, but, as a general thing, they were kept well in hand during the period
of their stay.

On March 23d, the Confederates mounted a gun on a platform car, and ran it down the track within range of the city. On
the next day the experiment was repeated, and several buildings were struck by shells. On March 26th, a strong
reconnoitering party marched out along the railroad, under command of Colonel Higginson. They had a brush with the
enemy, losing a few men about four miles from the town. To the surprise of all connected with the expedition, an order
for the abandonment of Jacksonville was received, and on March 31st the United States forces were withdrawn. At this
time there occurred an act of vandalism, the responsibility for which could never be fixed. A mania for firing buildings
seemed to seize upon the stragglers and camp followers who managed to escape from the control of their officers. A
high wind was blowing, and Jacksonville was almost wholly destroyed. The fleet steamed away, leaving the place in
flames. Even at the North the management of this expedition, involving, as it did, the needless occupation and
abandonment of a partly loyal city, provoked severe condemnation.

Interesting from Florida Operations of Col. Montgomery, Occupation of the Town of Palatka, The Place
Shelled in Retaliation.
(The Sun [Baltimore], April 9, 1863)
The City of
Jacksonville Evacuated and Burned. Great Destruction of Property.
The latest news from Florida is highly interesting. The city of Jacksonville is in ruins. That beautiful city, which has been
for so many years the favorite resort for invalids from the North, has been burned to the ground. Scarcely a mansion, a
cottage, a negro hut, or a warehouse, it is stated, remains. The following particulars of the fire with some events that
transpired just previous, are from the
New South, of the 4th, published at Hilton Head:

The City of Jacksonville Evacuated and Destroyed--Return of the Negro Brigade.
(From the
New South, April 4.)
The news from the
St. John's river by the latest arrival is important. On the 26th ult. Col. Montgomery, of the Second
South Carolina Volunteers, with two companies of his regiment embarked on the transport General Meigs, Capt.
Watkins, and pushed up the river as far as Orange Grove, where they anchored for the night.

On the following day they proceeded to
Palatka, where the Meigs ran up to the wharf and landed her troops, who
immediately took possession of the town. While lying at the wharf a volley of musketry was fired from the village, and
Capt. Watkins and Judge Latta, who were conversing together near the pilot-house, narrowly escaped, the bullets
whizzing close to them and lodging in the woodwork all about them.---Lieutenant Colonel Liberty Billings was shot
through both hands, and one or two of the negroes were also wounded. Meantime Col. Montgomery ordered the town to
be shelled, while he went beyond it and captured a lieutenant and fourteen men of a rebel company stationed there.
The next day the Adams came up with orders for the forces to return, and nothing further was accomplished at Palatka.

At Jacksonvillle the rebels succeeded in creating some commotion by placing a section of artillery upon a platform car
and running it to the edge of the city, whence they threw a number of shells, without effecting any serious results,
however. One shell entered the dwelling of a Union man, passing through the room where himself and wife were
sleeping, and penetrated the rocking-chair on which their clothes were piled. One soldier of the Eighth Maine regiment,
we learn, was killed and another wounded. In retaliation for the conduct of the rebels, Col. Rust, when the order to
evacuate was received, burned the town and brought away with him the families of the Union people.

Our forces left Jacksonville on the 31st. ...

N. Y. Tribune has a letter dated Jacksonville, March 28, giving full particulars of the fire. It does not confirm the
statement above that Col. Rust ordered the town to be fired. On the contrary it, intimates that it was done without
authority, by the soldiers, who were indignant because of its evacuation. The
Tribune's correspondent furnishes the
following particulars of the evacuation and contiagration:

I am now writing on the deck of the fine transport ship, the
Boston. Three gunboats --the Paul Jones, the Norwich and
John Adams---are lying out in the river, with guns shotted, ready to fire the moment a rebel appears in sight. The
transport vessels---the
Boston, the Delavan, the Gen. Meigs, the Tillie and the Cossack---are at the wharves, filled with
troops. All are on board, except about 2000 of the 6th Conn. who are on picket duty.Three blank shots from the
have just been fired, as a signal for them to come in.

From this upper deck the scene presented to the spectator is one of the most fearful magnificence. On every side, from
every quarter of the city, dense clouds of black smoke and flame are bursting through the mansions and warehouses. A
fine south wind is blowing immense blazing cinders right into the heart of the city. The beautiful Spanish moss, drooping
so gracefully from the long avenues of splendid old oaks has caught fire, and as far as the eye can reach through these
once pleasant streets, nothing but sheets of flame can be seen, running up with the rapidity of lightning to the tops of
the trees and then darting off to the smallest branches.

The whole city, mansions, warehouses, trees, shrubbery, and orange groves; all that refined taste and art through many
years have made beautiful and attractive, are being lapped up and devoured by this howling fiery blast. One solitary
woman, a horse tied to a fence between two fires, and a lean, half-starved dog, are the only living inhabitants to be seen
on the streets. Fifty families, most of them professing Union sentiments, have been taken on board of the transports and
provided with such accommodations as the tubs will afford. Some of them have been able to save a bed and a few
chairs, but most of them have nothing in the world but the clothes upon their backs. Is not this war, vindictive,
unrelenting war? Have we not gotten up to the European standard?

Yesterday the beautiful little cottage used as the Catholic parsonage, together with the church, was fired by some of the
soldiers, and in a short time burned to the ground. Before the flames had fairly reached the church the soldiers burst
open the doors and commenced sacking it of everything of value. The organ was in a moment torn to strips, and almost
every soldier who came out seemed to be celebrating the occasion by blowing through an organ pipe.

Today the same spectacle has been repeated, only upon a much grander scale. There must have been some
understanding among the incendiaries with regard to the conflagration. At 8 o'clock the flames burst from several
buildings in different parts of the city, and at a later hour still more were fired. The wind then rose to a stiff gale, and the
torch of the incendiary became unnecessary to increase the fire.

The only mansions of any value left standing as we move down the river are the elegant mansions of Col. Sanderson
and Judge Burritt, both rebels.

Why so much property, known to belong to Union men, should have been destroyed, and the mansions of these
notrious rebels leftstanding, it is hard to understand.

It gives me pleasure to report that the negro troops took no part whatever in the perpetration of this vandalism. They
had nothing whatever to do with it, and were simply silent spectators of the splendid but and spectacle. The 6th
Connecticut charge it upon the 8th Maine, and the 8th Maine hurl it back upon the 6th Connecticut. After the fires in
different parts of the city had broken out, Col. Rust ordered every man to be shot who should be found applying the
torch. But the order came too late. The provost marshal and his guard could not shoot or arrest the wind. No human
power could stay its ravages...

The following list of families subsisted on the rations of the commissary department.
General Saxton set apart several of
the largest mansions in Beaufort for their occupation until their friends at the Nort came to their assistance:

Mrs. Divees and family, Mrs. Cole and family, Mrs. Wallace, Mrs. Dunbar, Miss Jordan of the Crespo House, Dr. Emery
and son, Mrs. and Poetting, Mrs. Hague and family, Mrs. Poinsett, Miss Poinsett, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas, Mrs. Church, Mr.
and Mrs. Gower, Mrs. Curvick, Mrs. M. Leonardy and family, Mrs. R. Leonardy and family, Mrs. Shaddock and daughter,
Mrs. Foster, Mr. and Mrs. Syprel and family.

Finally Federals Reclaim Jacksonville
On the afternoon of February 7, 1864, the few remaining inhabitants of Jacksonville, not much more than one hundred
souls in all, saw the not unfamiliar spectacle of a gunboat, with her crew at quarters in front of the city. A few shots were
fired by the small detachment of Confederates on duty, when companies of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts and the
Eighth United States Colored Troops landed and took possession. This was the most formidable expedition that landed
at Jacksonville during the war, numbering about five thousand men, well supplied with cavalry and artillery. Pausing only
long enough to land their material, and leaving an adequate garrison, the command pushed on at once along the line of
the railroad toward Lake City, and met the crushing defeat at Olustee.

the defeated Federals fell back upon their fortifications at Jacksonville, and occupied them until the close of the war in
1865. The river was patrolled by gunboats, and no serious attack was afterward made by the Confederates.

Esther Hawks



Jacksonville in Reconstruction
Monthly Report Strawberry Mills School, Carrie Jocelyn, December 1865

Strawberry Mills Mission - January 1, 1866

Monthly Report of Adult School Jacksonville Florida Emma B. Eveleth January/February 1866

Monthly Report of Adult School Jacksonville Florida Emma B. Eveleth March 1866

Monthly Report of Mrs. H. B. Greely, Summis Plantation, March, 1866

Monthly Report of Annie McBartimus and Emma B. Eveleth School No. 2, April 1866

Monthly Report Carrie Jocelyn, Normal and Adult, April 1866

Monthly Report of Adult School Jacksonville Florida Emma B. Eveleth June 1866

Monthly Report of Jacksonville School Jacksonville Florida Miss E. C. Stowe and Miss E. B. Eveleth July 1866

Rev. Greeley on Strawberry Mills Mission, Jacksonville American Missionary 1867

Ketchum to Sprague on Appropriation for Construction of Stanton Normal - Aug 29, 1867

Staton Normal School

Monthly Report of W. C. Robinson - Stanton, Dec 1869

Monthly Report of Celia Williams - Stanton, Dec 1869

Monthly Report of Paula Williams - Stanton, Dec 1869

Monthly Report of Elsie Toller - Stanton, Dec 1869

Monthly Report of E. C. Stafford - Stanton, March 1870

Monthly Report of M C Robinson - Stanton, March 1870

Stanton Normal School Monthly Report (Freedmen's Bureau Form) - April, 1870

Stanton Normal School Monthly Report - December, 1870

Stanton Normal School Monthly Report - May, 1871

Jacksonville Provost Marshall Wedding Records 1860s

               Jacksonville Places to Stay in 1869
St. James
, on the public square, with airy piazzas, $4.00 a day

Taylor House, fronts the river

Price House, close to the railroad depot

St. John's House, in the center of the city

Howard House

Cowart House

Union House

Florida House

Rochester House
on the bluff south of the town from $2.00 to $3.00 a day.

Boarding Houses
Mrs. Freeland, Mrs. Hodgson, Mrs. Alderman opposite the Taylor House, and many others

Newspapers in 1869
The Florida Union, republican; Mercury and Floridian; Florida Land Register.

The St. James Hotel
The St. James Hotel, opened in 1869, was the largest hotel in the Southeast in the late 1800s. It was also the largest
building in Jacksonville. In 1901, the hotel was destroyed in the great city fire. Architect Henry J. Klutho rebuilt it, and it
became the Cohen Brothers Store (later known as May-Cohens) in 1912. By the 2000s, Jacksonville city hall had been
relocated to the St. James Building. The hotel building was located on West Duval Street. The park in front of the hotel
was the city's first park It was called St. James Park until 1899 when it was renamed Hemming Park, after Charles C.
Hemming who donated a Confederate monument to the city for the park.

1876 (Florida It's Scenery, Climate, and History by Sidney Lanier)
A few yards from the railway-station, across Bay Street, the long facade of the "Grand National Hotel" elevates itself;
wherefrom, if the traveler's entree be at night, he is like to hear sounds of music coming, through brilliantly-lighted
windows opening upon a wide balcony where many people are promenading in the pleasant evening air. Farther back in
town a few hundred yards, situated among fine oaks which border a newly-planted open square, is the St. James Hotel;
where the chances are strong that as one peeps through the drawing-room windows on the way to one's room, one will
find so many New York faces and Boston faces and Chicago faces that one does not feel so very far from home after all.

The Grand National and the St. James are open only during the winter; and when we came along back this way in the
late spring we found rough planks barring their hospitalities up--a clear case, in fact, of roses shutting and being buds
again. Of course, one feels that this simile needs justification; for a hotel is prima facie not like a rose: but what would
you have? This is Florida, and a simile will live vigorously in Florida which would perish outright in your cold carping

The Metropolitan Hotel, a quarter of a mile downtown from the depot, between Bay Street and Forsyth, blooms all the
year round.

These hotels are really well appointed in all particulars. The Metropolitan has been recently enlarged; and the St. James
is probably receiving additions at this writing. Besides the quarters they offer, pleasant abiding-places can be found in
the smaller public houses and among private families taking boarders. These minor hostelries of various sorts are said
to amount to one hundred in number. The National and St. James charge four dollars a day, the Metropolitan three; the
smaller houses from one and a half to three a day, and from ten to twenty dollars a week. As one emerges from one's
hotel in the morning, upon those springy plank sidewalks which constitute a sort of strolls made easy over a large part of
the city, one is immediately struck with the splendid youngwater-oaks which border the streets, sometimes completely
arching them over. Their foliage is dense, and, what with the brilliance of the sun, the lights and shadows are right
. . .
Jacksonville is as it were a city built to order, and many provisions have been made for employing the leisure of its winter
visitors. A very good circulating library is to be found on the northern side of Bay Street, a short distance below the
National Hotel, which is open to strangers for borrowing; and a lively news-vender in the same room supplies all the
prominent current papers and magazines every morning. A pleasant sort of exchange for visitors is also to be found in
the reading-room of Ambler's Bank, farther down Bay Street, on the opposite side. Beyond this, a few doors, is the
post-office. At the sign "Boats to let," on the wharf, not far below the Grand National, one can find pleasant sailboats for
hire at prices ranging from seventy-five cents an hour upward.

Several good livery-stables offer first-class turnouts, in the way of saddle-horses, buggies, and carriages; and there are
two shell-roads which afford pleasant drives. A very good objective-point for a ride is.
. . .
Persons can spend their winters in Jacksonville without interrupting the education of their children, and delicate young
people can here enjoy the advantage of the mild climate while pursuing their studies. Notable among the schools are:
the Episcopalian Academy of St. Mary's Priory, under the personal supervision of the bishop of the diocese, who resides
with his family in the school-building; and the Catholic institution, St. Joseph's Academy, under the charge of the Lady
Superior and several Sisters of the order of St. Joseph.

In this connection may also be mentioned the "Conservatory of Music," just inaugurated in Jacksonville, which seems to
be a really praiseworthy attempt to organize musical instruction in the city, and which is advertised as under the care of
the Bishop of Florida as President, and of a large number of the prominent citizens of the State as Vice-Presidents.

The city has its full quota of churches, Catholic, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist, and Baptist: and possesses all
needful telegraph, express, and general ticket offices, and other the like adjuncts of civilization.

Jacksonville is indeed the main gateway of the State.

The City of Jacksonville--the State of Florida (The Express News Vol IX, 1884)
Jacksonville is the entrepot for all Florida, the confluence of the St. John's River and its tributaries, and also the centre
of a very important system of railroads. It has all the symptoms of a thriving Northern city, and if a person could be set
down in its streets without knowing where he was, he would instinctively conclude he had wandered into Kansas City,
Missouri, or St. Paul, Minnesota. The people have the same characteristics for money-making as elsewhere, with the
advantage that they don't care a tinker's copper whether you trade a second time with them or not, from the fact that a
good majority who make purchases are tourists or emigrants, and in all probability will not be there twice.

During the winter months the hotels--and there are three or four magnificent structures----are crowded with visitors,
mostly from the North. At several of the hotels there is an orchestra attached to the house, and music is heard all day
long, adding much to the general pleasure and attraction. The society at all the hotels is first-class, being composed of
the best people of the country.

The city is improving rapidly, and has more facilities for furnishing substantials and delicacies than any other place in
Florida. This is why so many pleasure and health seekers make that city headquarters during the winter months, taking
their longer or shorter jaunts at will. Cast your eyes upon the map of Florida and you will see at once that Jacksonville
occupies the key to all of the State.

Handbook of Florida (Norton, 1890)
Population 35,000 - Lat 30 degrees 24' N. -- Long. 81 degree 40' W.

Hotels - Carleton Hotel, Rooms $1 upward; restaurant a la carte - Duval -- Everett -- Grand View -- Glenada $3 to $3.50
-- Hotel Togni, $2 -- Lafayette -- Oxford. -- St. James Hotel, $4 -- Tremont House -- Windsor Hotel, $4 and $5
Railroads, Steamboats, etc.

Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West System (to St. Augustine, Indian River, Tampa, Punta Gorda, etc.). Station foot of
Bridge St.

Florida Central & Peninsula Railway (to Tallahassee, Pensacola, Fernandina, Cedar Key, Orlando, etc.). Station foot of
Hogan Street.

Savannah, Florida & Western Railway (Waycross Short Line). Station foot of Bridge St.

Jacksonville, Mayport & Pablo Railway & Navigation Co. (to Mayport and Burnside Beach) Ferry from foot of Market St.)

Jacksonville & Atlantic Railroad (to Pablo Beach). Ferry from foot of Newnan Street.

People's Line (St. John's River Steamers). Astor's wharf, foot of Hogan St.

De Bary Line (St. John's River Steamers). Foot of Laura Street.

Beach & Miller Line (to Fort Goerge, Mayport etc.), Tyson & Co's wharf foot of Pine Street.

Clyde Line (New York, charleston & Florida Steamship Co.). Astor's wharf, foot of Hogan St.

Tramways, with cars at five minute intervals, run through Bay St. eastward, two miles to the river bank below
Commodore's Point, where there are a racecourse and one or two hotels, mainly for transient resort. Good view across
and down the river. Westward the Bay Street line crosses McCoy's Creek into the suburbs. a cross-town line runs out
Pine St. to the Sub-tropical Exposition grounds and beyond, and another out Laura St., two miles to the suburbs of
Somerville and Warren; uniform fare, 5 cents.

Carriage rate from railroad stations and steamboat landings to any part of city 25 cents, per piece.

Livery.--Carriages and saddle-horses may usually be best engaged through the hotel clerk; there are, however, many
excellent livery stables where, if desired, special terms may be made. The following are approximately the prevailing
rates; Saddle-horses, 75 cents to $1.50 per hour, $3 a day; single teams, $1.50 an hour, $4 a day; double teams with
driver, $2 an hour, $5 upward a day.

Boats and Launches may be found at the foot of Market St; row-boats, 25 cents an hour; with attendant, $2 to $5 a day.
Special bargains must be made for steam launches and the like, or for protracted expeditions.

Points of Interest in Jacksonville
The Sub-tropical Exposition
City Water-works
Post Office, Bay St., cor. Market
Banks (hours 9:30 to 2 p.m.) -- Bank of Jacksonville. -- First National Bank of Florida, cor. Bay and Ocean St. - State
Bank of Florida. -- National Bank, State of Florida. 16 West Bay St -- National Bank of Jacksonville -- Florida Savings
Bank and Real Estate Exchange -- ambler, Marvin & Stockton.
Cigar Manufactories.
Fibre Works
Churches. -- Baptist, Rev. Mr. Plummer, -- Congregational, Rev. R. T. Hall, St. -- Presbyterian (South, Rev. Dr. Dodge,
Newnan St. -- Roman Catholic, Father Keeny, Newnan St. There are also a large number of small congregations, mainly
negroes, scattered through the city.

1891 (From Snow to Sun Florida Winter Pleasure Tours Pennsylvania Railroad)
1075 miles from New York.
Now the terminus of the tourists' journey from the North is reached as the Vestibule Pullman train halts after its long run
through the living fields of the New South to the doorway of those mysteriously fascinating scenes of sub-tropical growth
and life in Flora's land. From a scattering few explorers, who landed from their frail crafts and cut a way through the
tangled mass which so effectually fringed the banks of the beautiful lake like river of St. John's, and erected their rude
shelter on a soil whose richness the like of which they had never seen sprung the first life to what has grown into this
wonderful metropolis of Jacksonville one of the most important cities from a commercial and social stand-point in the

It is to-day the great distributing centre from which hosts of  travelers pouring into the land branch out to the numberless
places of interest in every direction. The city is situated on the St. John's River, twenty-five miles west of the ocean. The
river at this point is nearly}-^ twenty-four hundred feet wide, and as the town is located on a curve of its wide banks the
water front is extensive and the uninterrupted view superb. The city is laid out in wide avenues, shaded with grand live
oaks ; rare flowers and shrubbery of the tropics adorn the grounds surrounding villas and hotels, and the sweet perfume
of buds and blossoms permeates the air. On the land side the wide boulevards and smooth shell roads afford fine
drives, while the waters of the river and bay invite boating and yachting. The wharves are very extensive, and
the commerce by ships spreads over ocean and river. An interesting feature of the city is the permanent Sub-Tropical
Exposition. The extensive and handsome grounds and buildings occupy an eligible site within the corporate limits. The
display is designed to cover all the tropical products of the United States, the West Indies, the Bahamas, and Mexico.
The exhibition is open during the season, and one may see there a vast collection of the prolific and varied productions
of the tropics artistically exposed to view.

The hotels of Jacksonville are numerous. Some are very handsome structures, and all offer good entertainment.

The Carleton European plan.
Hotel Togni $2.00 per day.
The Duval . . $3.00 to $4.00 per day.
St. James Hotel .... $4.00 per day.
The Gienada $3. 00 per day.
The Travelers $3. 00 per day.
Hotel Oxford $4.00 per day.
Tremont House.$4.00 to $5.00 per day,
Hotel Placide
Windsor Hotel
. , . . , Special rates, American and European plan. ,

1899 (Pennsylvania Railroad Tours to Florida 1899)
1002 miles from New York.
This city is the great distributing centre from which hosts of travelers pouring into the land branch out to the numberless
places of interest in every direction. It is situated on the St. John's River, twenty-five miles west of the ocean, and is the
largest city on the seaboard south of Savannah, and the place of first importance in business, trade, and commerce.
The wide avenues of the city are shaded with grand live oaks ; rare flowers and shrubbery of the tropics adorn the
grounds around the villas and hotels, and the sweet perfume of buds and blossoms permeates the air. The city is rich in
suburban attractions. The drive along the St. John's River and to Riverside are especially beautiful.

The hotels of Jacksonville are numerous. Some are very handsome structures, and all offer good entertainment.

The Carleton
The Duval.
The Glenada.
Hotel Oxford.
St. James Hotel.
The Travelers.
Windsor Hotel.
The Everett.
Placide House.
Grand View Hotel.

The Great Fire
In 1901 the city suffered the great fire from a stove at the Cleveland Fiber Factory. The fire destroyed 2,400 buildings
and 146 blocks. 7 people were killed and 10,000 people were left homeless.

Is a Mouldering Ruin (New Ulm Universe, May 8, 1901)
Desolation and Distress Prevail in the Fire-Stricken City of Jacksonville.
Many Lives are reported to be lost

People Lose Their All---Militia Rushed to City to Prevent Lawlessness---Efforts at Relieving the Distress
Begun---Outside Cities Respond to the Great Need.
The hot May sun rose smoke-enshrouded over the devastated city. the fire, which broke out Friday noon and was aided
in its work by a southwest gale, spent its force by nine o'clock at night. The damage is enormous. One hundred and
forty-eight blocks were swept by the flames and as far as known seven persons lost their lives.

A report is in circulation that a party of 20 persons, driven to the docks along the
St. Johns river, were forced into the
water, all attempts at rescue by boats being futile. The river is being search.

Militia Being Rushed to City.
All the local companies of the state militia have been on duty since midnight, and, on order of Gov. Jennings, the military
companies from four cities are speeding to Jacksonville by special trains. Many extra police have been sworn in and
every able-bodied man, not doing duty in some capacity in the fire-swept district, is impressed into the service. The
negroes are huddled in groups in different parts of the city and the fear of an attempt at lawlessness by them, although
not openly expressed by the whites, is the reason for the large military force ordered here.

Soaking Rain Needed.
The fire companies from Savannah,
Fernandina, Ocala and other cities worked the entire night on the fire, but a
soaking rain will be necessary to effectually quench the flames. The losses by the fire will not be known for a week. The
path of the flames was 13 blocks wide and nearly two miles long.

Practically all old Jacksonville has been destroyed, nothing being left but a few suburbs and Riverside the most
fashionable part of the city. It is believed the fire is the largest in proportion to the size of the place that has ever visited
any city.

A Distressing Feature.
A distressing feature of the conflagration was the loss by many families of libraries, pianos and household goods after
they had been moved to a supposed place of safety. The street-car service has been at a complete standstill since
Friday afternoon. The city was in darkness. The electric light circuits were interrupted and the gas plant destroyed. A
conservative estimate places the number of homeless people in the city at 10,000. Most of these spent the night in the
parks, on the docks, on barges and some slept on what few belongings they had managed to save from the general

Steps to Relieve Suffering.
The board of trade and other commercial bodies held meetings at 10:30 to take action looking to the alleviation of the
suffering. It is expected that an appeal to the people of the United States will be issued some time during the day.
Leading business men and insurance agents estimate the total loss of property at from $10,000,000 to $15,000,000.

The St. James Hotel, which was destroyed, has been closed since April 19. The loss on this building is $175,000. Among
the buildings destroyed are:

The Emery auditorium, board of trade, St. James hotel, Windsor hotel, the Seminole club, the Daily Metropolis, the city
hall and market, the Gardiner building, the largest office building in the city; the Hubbard building.

Mayor's Message to World.
Mayor Bowden said to the press reporter Saturday morning:

"Say to the world, please, that the loss to Jacksonville is greater than ever before inflicted by fire upon a city of the
south, but her best wealth survives in her people. I estimate our loss in property at $15,000,000.

"There is not a hint of lawlessness; our people of every race and condition have shown the most helpful spirit to each
other and I cannot find words of commendation strong enough to express my admiration of the work done.

"The progress of the fire was so rapid and the heat so fierce that it was only the helpfulness and obedience shown that
prevented a terrible loss of life. I have no municipal authorities and board of trade will be largely attended and steps will
be taken to deal with the situation in the most effective way."

His Two Children Missing.
Dr. R. H. Dean, a prominent physician, reported the loss of his two children, Helen and Francis, to the police at noon.
Dr. Dean thinks the elder of the two, Helen, will yet be found, but believes Francis burned to death in his office, where
they sought safety. Dr. Dean collapsed on the street after an all-night search, and in falling was seriously injured.

W. B. Barnett, president of the First national bank, of Jacksonville, also fainted during the progress of the fire. He fell
into some smoldering ruins and his hair, beard and face were burned before he was rescued.

The Terrific Strain Tells.
The terrific strain, added to the warm weather, is telling on many of those who were active Friday and Friday night in
rescue was, a number of cases of prostration being reported up to noon. Fire Chief Haney is somewhat improved. He
was brought down town during the day in care of two or three firemen, to view the ruins. Secretary of War Root Saturday
wired the mayor of St. Augustine, tendering the use of the barracks at Fort Barrancas (Editor: Fort Marion) (St.
Augustine) for the refugees. The offer was in turn transmitted to Jacksonville. St. Augustine offers also to take care of
1,000 refugees with its own funds. Before the fire reached the county jail Friday Sheriff Brice assembled all his
prisoners, 35 in number, and, summoning all his deputies marched the men to Riverside. Here they were kept under
guard all night and Saturday morning removed to Glencoe and St. Augustine.

Legislature to Give Aid.
A bill will be introduced in the legislature immediately to at once bond Duval county for $500,000 to rebuild the

A bill for a similar amount will be brought before the legislature to bond the city of Jacksonville, the money to be used in
covering an old debt and to erect buildings destroyed by the fire. Owing to the tremendous pressure of business the
Western Union Telegraph company has given up all attempts to deliver messages. The office is crowded to suffocation
by people endeavoring to get their messages on the wires, and to reach telegrams awaiting them. Outside of the
telegraph office people are seen with blanks up against the building writing dispatches. Money is pouring in from all
Florida cities by wire and express. The Times Union and Citizen has headed a fund which is growing rapidly. It is
admitted by everybody that the situation is a serious one, and that help will be needed from the outside world.

Relief Funds Started.
Atlanta, Ga., May 6. -- The Journal started a list of subscriptions of food clothing and money for the relief of the
Jacksonville fire sufferers and supplies were pouring in Saturday afternoon. The mayor called a meeting of citizens
which was in session, also considering what relief will be sent, Atlanta's people are responding liberally to the call for
assistance, several thousand dollars having already been subscribed.

Nashville, Tenn., May 6 --- The Nashville Banner has authorized the mayor of Jacksonville, Fla., to draw on it for $1,000,
being the amount subscribed by citizens of Nashville for the immediate relief of the suffers from the fire.

New York, May 6. --- The Merchants' association of this city has telegraphed to Gov. Bloxham and the mayor of
Jacksonville expressing sympathy with the people of Jacksonville in their distress and asking for a statement of
immediate necessities. The association will form a committee to receive subscriptions for the relief of the destitute.

The Florida Historical Society
The Florida Historical Society was organized November 26, 1902. It was chartered as a corporation on May 15, 1905.
The society was established in a room in the Jacksonville Public Library. Major George Rainsford Fairbanks became the
first president of the Florida Historical Society.

1907  (Waugh's Blue Book of Leading Hotels and Resorts of the World by W. W. Waugh & Son)
It was in 1816 that Florida, having passed from British to Spanish rule, one Hogan, having married a Spanish widow who
held a grant of 900 acres on the present site of Jacksonville, moved there and was ready to reap the benefit of the tide
of immigration that began soon after the transfer of the territory to the United States in 1819. A ferry was established
and an inn opened in 1822, and the settlement became a town in 1833, and was named after President Andrew Jackson.

This city has been one of the popular resorts of the South ever since it became accessible to travelers. Jacksonville is a
head center for tourists, and excursions are made to all points; to St. Augustine, 36 miles;
to Fernandina, 37 miles; to
Mayport, 20 miles, by boat and rail; Fort George Island, by boat or by rail, to Mayport then
by boat,
Magnolia Springs, by boat or rail, as desired, 28 miles; Green Cove Springs, by
boat or rail, 32 miles. The railroads terminating here are the Florida East Coast system, Atlantic Coast Line, Seaboard
Air Line, Southern Railway and the Georgia Southern & Florida,

WINDSOR HOTEL, Dodge & Cullens, Proprietors.

Movie Town
Florida's first motion picture studio opened in Jacksonville in 1908. Over 30 studios would open over the next ten years
including Metro Pictures (the future MGM) and Richard Norman. Norman Studio building is the last studio building
existing from Jacksonville's Golden Age of film. Some movies that have been shot in Jacksonville today include "G I
Jane, The Manchurian Candidate and Recount.

                               Places to Stay 1909
The Windsor Hotel
The New Windsor has accommodations for 500 guests. It is a brick stone and steel structure, modern in its
appointments and interior finish. Four stories in height, it covers an entire block, facing one of the most beautiful parks
in Florida.

The Windsor is open the year round and conducted on the American plan. Rates $3.00 per day and upward. Thos. M.
Wilson, proprietor.

                               Places to Stay 1912
, Wm H. Marshall; capacity 250; rates-per day, $1.50 up, European.

Windsor, C. H. Montgomery; capacity, 400; rates - per day, $3.50 up,

Aragon, J. A. Newcomb; capacity, 250; rates - per day, $2.50 up

Duval, W. M. Floor; capacity, 250; rates - per day, $2.50 up per week, 17.50 to $40.00.

Everett, George Mason; capacity, 225; rates - per day, $1.00 up. European.

Albert, W. A. Guill & Co.; capacity, 200; rates - per day. $1.00 up. European.

St. Albans, K. H. Conroy; capacity, 50; rates - per day, $2.50 up; per week $12.50 up

The Royal Palms, Mrs. M. J. Morgan; rates $2.50 up; per week, $12.50 up.

Grand View, D. E. Cooper; capacity, 60; rates - per day $2.00 up; per week  $10.00 up.

Waverly, Mrs. L. Wilson; capacity, 150; rates - per day, $1.00. European.

New St. James, W. E. Alexander; capacity, 125; rates per day, $1.00 up. European, per week, special.

Atlantic, George Morford; capacity, 175; rates - per day $5 up, European.

Windle, W. W. Smith; capacity, 100; rates - per day - $2.50 up, per week $10.00 up, American, per day, $1.00 up,

Victoria, M. Ingalls; capacity 75; rates - per day, $2.00 up, per week $10.00 up.

Travelers, Mrs. H. W. Hancock; capacity, 100; rates - per day, $2.00 up, per week, $8.00 up.

Riverview, T. Griffith; capacity, 60; rates per day, $1.50, per week $7.00 up.

Westmoreland, John F. May, capacity 75; rates - per day, $2.00 up, per week         

Lenox, W. M. Teahan; capacity, 65; rates - per day, $2.00 up, per week, special.

There are over one hundred cemeteries in Duval County. The early cemeteries include St. Johns Episcopal which was
moved into The Old City Cemetery or Willey Cemetery of over 50 acres. The Old City Cemetery is Duval County's
largest for pre-1880 graves. People buried there include Confederate General Joseph Finegan, Columbus Drew,
Governor Francis P. Fleming, Charles Hemming.

Evergreen Cemetery is over two hundred sixty-one acres with the first burial in 1881. Buried in Evergreen are: Isaiah D.
Hart, U. S. Senators Nathan P. Bryan, William Allen Bryan, James P. Taliaferro and Duncan U. Fletcher. Also buried
there are four Florida governors: Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, William S. Jennings, Ossian B. Hart, and John W. Martin.

Some smaller cemeteries with pre-1900 graves include: Clifton Cemetery on Garrison Ave., Dunn's Creek Cemetery, off
Dunn's Creek Rd., East Mayport Cemetery, near the west end of Wonderwood Rd., Edgewood Cemetery at 4599
Edgewood Ave. N., Gravely Hills Cemetery withing Riverside Memorial at 7243 Normandy Blvd, Mandarin Cemetery at
Mandarin Rd., New Berlin Cemetery off New Berlin Rd., Philips/Craig Swamp Cemetery on Old St. Augustine Rd. near
Lorimier Rd., St. Joseph's Cemetery on 4124 Loretto Rd in Mandarin, St. Nicholas Cemetery on Olive St., Turknett and
Daniels Cemeteries off 103rd St, and Westview Cemetery on Pickettville Rd. near Kings Rd.
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