|Inspector's Report of Schools for the Freedmen's Bureau No. 22
War Department, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
January 1, 1866
Freedmen's Bureau Records
1. Society of Friends - they were part of the early supporters of the Baltimore Association.
2. The American Missionary Association - The American Missionary Association was formed on
September 3, 1846. It was a unification of the Amistad Committee, the Union Missionary, the Committee
for West-India Missions, and the Western Evangelical Missionary Society. Before the War of the
Rebellion it had been active as an evangelical society throughout the south but especially North Carolina
and Kentucky. They were the founders of Berea College in Kentucky which was closed as a reaction to
the John Brown raid. The society was among the first to send teachers south first to Fortress Monroe on
September 3, 1861 with the school on September 15 in ex-President Tyler's house by an
African-American teacher by the name of Mrs. Mary S. Peake. The AMA would be active in Port Royal
and later throughout the South. It would found not only elementary schools but normal schools and higher
institutions of learning including: Berea College, Normal and Agricultural Institute at Hampton, Fisk
University, Atlanta University, Tougaloo University, Talladega College, and Straight University.
3. Douglas Institute - In 1865 Frederick Douglass dedicated an institution that would become the focal
point of the Baltimore's African American community between 1865 and 1890: the Douglass Institute,
named in his honor. The original founders were white because blacks were not permitted to incorporate.
The board of directors changed when the Institute took out a new charter in 1872, after African Americans
could legally form corporations. The Douglass Institute hosted meetings of organizations promoting African
4. Outrages - Maryland was as tough as any southern state from the items listed above to Prince Georges
County closer in to D. C.: 1866 threat to molest children in Bladensburg, November 1866, white teacher
leaves Upper Marlboro because he cannot find a white family to board with, fears of assault by citizens of
Upper Marlboro and especially liquor vendors on April 12, 1868, physical assault on John Douglas,
teacher by a white man in Upper Marlboro on March 20, 1869, eight white men attack a teacher at Broad
Creek who was removed from his horse, tied to a tree and whipped on January 16, 1870, druken white
men throw stones at schoolhouse in Robeytown where a teacher then confronted men with her revolver on
March 14, 1870.
Index - Friends, Baltimore, American Missionary Association, Douglass Institute, Nelson Willis, Easton,
Cambridge, Dorchester county, Willington, Kent county, Annapolis, Cecil, Queen Anne, Somerset,
District of Columbia, Mr. Kimball.