Dr. Bronson's St. Augustine History
St. Augustine in the Civil War
Page 7

ab urbe condita - 296 to 300
St. Augustine's Confederate Soldiers
The Confederate forces of St. Augustine were recruited into the St. Augustine Blues and the St.
Johns Greys. On the plaza you will find the monument to the Confederate War dead. It is the
oldest Confederate monument in the State of
Florida. Domingo B. Usina fought in Company "B"
Third Florida Volunteers. There were
three African-American soldiers in the Confederate army:
Antonio Welters, Isaac Papino, and Emanuel Osborn. They served as musicians until they were
discharged in 1862.   
Remembering the United States Soldiers of St. Augustine is more difficult.

General William Wing Loring (See William Wing Loring Monument)
December 14, 1818 William was born in Wilmington, North Carolina, to Reuben and Hannah
Loring. When he was four, his family moved to Saint Augustine,
Florida, where, at the young age
of fourteen, he began a military career that spanned fifty years. As a fourteen year old, Loring
joined the Florida Militia and gained his first combat experience fighting the Seminole Indians in
minor skirmishes ( Black Point and Wahoo Swamp), he rose to a second lieutenant by the time
hostilities ceased in 1842. Loring then studied law that would culminate in the Seminole Wars.
When he was seventeen, he ran away to fight in the Texas War for Independence, but was soon
retrieved by his father and taken home. For the next few years he would fight in the second
Seminole War and end up being promoted to second lieutenant.

In 1837, Loring was sent to Alexandria Boarding School in Alexandria, Virginia, completing his
secondary education. He attended Georgetown University from 1839 to 1840 and then went on to
study law, and was admitted to the Florida bar in 1842. In 1843, he was elected to the Florida
House of Representatives where he served from 1843 to 1845. In 1845 he ran unsuccessfully for
the Florida Senate.

In 1846, Loring joined a newly formed regiment, the Regiment of Mounted Rifles , originally
created to protect the Oregon Territory. He was promoted to major even before the regiment saw
battle. Shortly thereafter the Mounted Rifles were sent to Mexico to fight in the Mexican-American
war. Loring's regiment saw action in most of the battles of the war and he was wounded three
times. While leading the charge into Mexico City, Loring's arm was shattered by a Mexican bullet,
and he would later have it amputated.

As a captain of the Mounted Riflemen, he won two brevets in that conflict, being wounded at both
Churubusco and Chapultepec and losing an arm at Chapultepec. After the war the citizens of
Apalachaicola, Fl presented him with a sword.

Loring was stationed with his regiment at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, when the Gold Rush to the
West Coast began. Accordingly, he was tasked with marching his regiment 2,500 miles to Oregon,
providing security for a wagon train of 600 vehicles and thousands of settlers. He was appointed
head of the newly created Department of Oregon. In 1851, Loring and his men were transferred to
Texas and New Mexico, where they conducted periodic skirmishes against the Comanche and
Kiowa Indians. In September 1856, Loring transferred his headquarters to Fort Union, New Mexico,
where two months later he became the youngest colonel in the army. In this capacity he
conducted several sweeps through Apache lands in concert with Gen. Benjamin Bonneville. Two
years later he accompanied Col. Albert S. Johnston on the so-called Mormon Expedition to Utah.
In 1859, Loring acquired a well-deserved leave of absence and traveled to Europe and the Middle
East to study military institutions. He returned to New Mexico in 1860 to find himself appointed
commander of the Department of New Mexico. By the time of his May 13, 1861, resignation he was
his regiment's colonel.

His Confederate assignments included: brigadier general, CSA (May 20, 186 1); commanding
Army of the Northwest July 20-August 3, 1861 and October 1861February 9, 1862); commanding
brigade, Army of the Northwest (August 3-October 1861); major general, CSA (February 17,
1862); commanding Department of Southwestern Virginia (May 8-October 16, 1862); commanding
division, 2nd Military District, Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana (ca. January-April
1863); commanding division, Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana (April-May 16, 1863);
commanding division, Department of the West (May 16-July 1863); commanding division,
Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana July 1863-January 28, 1864); commanding division,
Department of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana January 28-May 4, 1864); commanding
division, Polk's (Army of Mississippi)-Stewart's Corps, Army of Tennessee (May 4-June 14, June
14-July 28, 1864, September 1864-ca. March 1865, and April 9-26, 1865); and temporarily
commanding the corps June 14, 1864).

After the war he served 10 years as a General in Egypt. He wrote and published a book,
Confederate Soldier in Egypt, about his experiences. Another book which contains his journal from
his western adventures was published long  after his death entitled
The March of the Mounted

On the west side of the plaza you will find a
monument to Confederate General William Wing
Loring.  The Sons of the Confederacy Chapter in St. Augustine is named the William Wing Loring
Chapter. General Loring died in New York on December 30, 1886 and his ashes were buried at
Grace Episcopal church in New York. City Council in St. Augustine gave $100 toward moving him
back to St. Augustine and with the help of others the General's ashes arrived by train on March
17, 1887 and lay in an oak coffin in the Plaza, guarded day and night by sentries. He was laid to
rest first in Evergreen cemetery but was moved to the west side of the plaza in 1920.

General Edmond Kirby Smith
Edmund Kirby Smith was born at St. Augustine, Fla on May 16, 1824, the son of Joseph Lee  and
Francis Kirby Smith.. His boyhood house is the site of the St. Augustine Historical Society
Research Library. Confederate General Edmond Kirby Smith (
sculpture of General Kirby Smith
and Alexander Darnes) was a West Point graduate (military statue in the U. S. Capitol). His early
training was at Hollowels Preparatory Academy in Alexandria, Va. The Floridian West Pointer
(1845) nicknamed "Seminole" at the academy-had been posted to the infantry upon his
graduation and won two brevets in the Mexican War. He was breveted first lieutenant, and captain
for gallantry at Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo and at Contreras-Churubusco.

After the war (from 1849 -1852)  he was an assistant professor of Mathematics at West Point.

In 1855 he transferred to the cavalry and served until his resignation as major in the 2nd Cavalry
on April 6, 1861. He was wounded in 1859 fighting Indians in the Nescutunga Valley of Texas.
Texas seceded, Smith refused to surrender his command to the state forces under Ben

He was made a brigadier-general on the 17th of June 1861, and was wounded at the battle of Bull
Run. In command of the Confederate forces in the Cumberland Gap region Kirby Smith took part
in General Bragg's invasion of Kentucky in the autumn of 1862, and inflicted upon the Federal
forces a severe defeat at Richmond, KY, on the 30th of August; and was present at the battles of
Perryville and Murfreesboro (Stone River.)

He commanded the Trans-Mississippi Department after the fall of Vicksburg. He defeated Union
General Nathan P Banks in the Red River campaign. He was the last major army to surrender his
troops. It occurred on May 26, 1865 to Union General E.R.S. Canby.

After the war, he was from 1866 to 1868 president of the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph company,
from 1868 to 1876 president of the Western Military Academy, from 1870 to 1875 chancellor of
the university of Nashville, and from 1875 to his death professor of mathematics at the University
of the South, Suwanee, Tennessee. He died at Suwanee on the March 28,  1893 and was buried
on the campus.

General Stephen Vincent Benet
The Union General was Stephen Vincent Benet, the grandfather of the famous poet. Stephen
Vincent Benet was the son of Peter Benet a Minorcan. Peter was known as the "King of the
Minorcans." Peter served as a police officer, Justice of the Peace, a Church Warden, alderman
and was Mayor for one month. He was the Collector, Assistant Surveyor, and Surveyor of the Port
of St. Augustine for the Federal government.

Stephen Vincent Benet was born in St. Augustine, Fla., January 22, 1827. He studied at Hallowell's
school in Alexandria, Virginia, then at the University of
Georgia, and at the United States Military
Academy (as the first appointee from the State of
Florida)  where he graduated in 1849, standing
third in his class. He was appointed to the Ordnance Corps, and served at the Watervliet arsenal,
at Washington, at Frankford arsenal, again at Washington, and then at the St. Louis arsenal.

He was in command of Pikesville Arsenal, Md., 1853-‘54; on Special duty in Ordnance Bureau, at
Washington, D. C., 1854; on Coast Survey, Apr. 25 to July 10, 1854; as Asst. Ordnance Officer, at
St. Louis Arsenal, Mo., 1854-‘59; and at the Military Academy, 1859-61, as Principal Asst.
Professor of Geography, History, and Ethics, Oct. 4, 1859, to Apr. 26, 1861.

From 1861 till 1864 was instructor of Ordnance and the Science of Gunnery, after which, until
1869, he was in command of Frankford arsenal. He invented and perfected the first centerfire
metallic infantry cartridge that helped in the creation of the Gatling Gun.

In 1869 he was made Assistant to the Chief of Ordnance, and in 1874, on the death of the Chief
of the Department, he succeeded to the place, with the rank of Brigadier General. He translated
Political and Military History of the Campaign of Waterloo (New York, 1853), and he is the
author of a treatise on
Military Law and the Practice of Courts-Martial (1862), and Electro-Ballistic
Machines and the Schultze Chronoscope

He was in charge of the Ordnance Bureau, Washington, D. C., from June 23, 1874 to Jan. 22,

Retired from Active Service, he being 64 Years of Age, Jan. 22, 1889. He died Jan. 22, 1895, at
Washington, D. C.: Aged 68 and is buried in Arlington Cemetery..

General Edmund J Davis
The Union General Edmund J. Davis was born in St. Augustine October 2, 1827 the son of William
Godwin Davis (from
South Carolina) and Mary Ann Channer Davis. He moved with his parents to
Texas in 1848,  Davis moved to Corpus Christi. He worked as a clerk in the Post Office
studied and was  admitted to the bar. He was collector of customs when transferred to Laredo
where he worked as a deputy customs collector, 1850-52, district attorney, 1853-54, and
Governor Elisha M. Pease appointed him district judge of the 12th Judicial District (Brownsville).
As judge he accompanied the ranger unit of Capt. William G. Tobin, who was involved in the
Cortina affair at Brownsville in 1859.

On April 6, 1858, Davis married Anne Elizabeth Britton, daughter of Forbes Britton, a state
senator and friend of Sam Houston. The couple had two sons, Britton and Waters. Britton was
born in 1860, attended West Point, and became an officer in the United States Army. Waters, born
in 1862, attended the University of Michigan and became an attorney and merchant in El Paso. He
opposed secession. After refusing to take an oath in support of the Confederacy, Davis resigned
his judgeship. The State vacated his judgeship on April 24, 1861.

In May 1862 he fled
Texas to Federally occupied New Orleans ( to avoid conscription in the
Confederate Army)  and then to Washington DC and on Oct. 26, 1862 accepted a commission in
the Federal army from Abraham Lincoln as colonel of a regiment of other Texas refugees from the
Confederacy, the First Texas Cavalry (U.S.). Davis and the First Texas saw extensive service
during the remainder of the war. They were at Galveston on January 3, 1863, and barely escaped
capture when Confederates took that city back from Union hands. On March 15, 1863,
Confederate citizens and off-duty soldiers seized Davis in Matamoros, where he was attempting to
take his family out of Texas and recruit men for his unit. This event precipitated diplomatic trouble
between the Confederacy and Mexico that lasted until Gen. Hamilton P. Bee released Davis to
appease Mexican governor Albino López. From November to December 1863 Davis was in Texas
as a part of Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's unsuccessful Rio Grande campaign. His unit marched to
Rio Grande City and seized cotton and slaves in an effort to disrupt the border trade. On
November 10 1864, Davis was promoted to brigadier general. For the rest of the war he
commanded Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds' cavalry in the Division of Western Mississippi. He was
mustered out, Aug. 24, 1865. He was present at the surrender of General Kirby Smith.

He late became Governor of
Texas. Appointed provisional governor on January 8, 1870 (about
five weeks after the election and before the official outcome had been confirmed), Davis began a
four-year term and was inaugurated on April 28, 1870. After the state legislature ratified the 14th
and 15th Amendments, the civilian rule of the state officially replaced the military rule on March
30, 1870. The Constitution of 1869 had given the governor power to appoint more than 9,000
offices, impinging on the independence of local government and the will of the people. A
taxpayers' convention met in September 1871, chaired by E.M. Pease, to protest high taxes,
needless expenditures, and the legislature's cancellation of that year's regular elections. The
legislature nearly impeached Governor Davis in 1873. The Texas Supreme Court in Ex Parte
Rodriquez(the "semi-colon case" of December 1873) invalidated the election of 1873 in which
Richard Coke had defeated Davis. Texans ignored this decision, and President U.S. Grant
refused to intervene on Davis' behalf. Davis did not intend to leave office until April 1874, but he
did so reluctantly in January, officially marking the end of Reconstruction in Texas..He established  
Texas' first public school system. He restored the state militia, created the bureau of immigration
and set up forts along the western Frontier. When Davis failed to win re-election in 1873, he
returned to the practice of law although he attempted to run again for Governor and also for

Edmund J. Davis died in 1883 and was buried in Austin, Texas in the Texas State Cemetery. .

General William Hardee (Old Reliable)
While General Hardee was not born in St. Augustine his wife Elizabeth Dummett was. They were
married in Trinity Episcopal Church November 14, 1840 by Rev. F Rutledge.

Hardee was born to Sarah Ellis and Major John Hardee (the youngest of seven) at the "Rural
Felicity" estate in Camden County, Georgia on October 12, 1815. Hardee learned primary and
secondary school skills from a tutor, and in 1830 a local lawyer attested to Hardee's education
and fitness so that he could apply to the United States Military Academy at West Point. He
graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1838 (26th in a class of 45)
and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Dragoons.

He was assigned to the Second Dragoons, under the command of David Twiggs, joining them on
November 21, 1838. He almost immediately was sent to the hospital at St. Augustine because of
illness. After returning to his unit in December, he did little more than patrol before General
Alexander Macomb negotiated a peace with the Seminoles. While he was stricken with illness, and
while hospitalized he met and married Elizabeth Dummett.

After he recovered, the Army sent him to France to study military tactics in 1840. Hardee was one
of the three officer chosen to attend Cadre Noir, (Royal Cavalry School) at Saumur. Upon his
return to America he was assigned to Fort Jesup in Louisiana to train U. S. troops in the cavalry
tactics he had learned in France.

On April 13, 1844, Hardee received a new commanding officer at Fort Jesup. Zachary Taylor was
impressed with Hardee's success at introducing European cavalry tactics to the United States and
made him a captain on October 21, 1844. When Taylor's command became the "Army of
Observation" early in 1846, Hardee's dragoons rode west to the Mexican-American border to
support the infantry then sailing to Texas.

He served with distinction in the War with Mexico. In the Mexican-American War, Hardee served in
the Army of Occupation under Zachary Taylor and won two brevet promotions (to brevet major for
Medelin and Vera Cruz, and to lieutenant colonel for St. Augustin). He was captured on April 25,
1846 at Carricitos Ranch, Texas, and exchanged on May 11.Now serving under Winfield Scott,
Hardee was wounded at La Rosia, Mexico in 1847.After the war, he led units of Texas Rangers
and soldiers in Texas.

After his wife died in 1853, he returned to West Point as a tactics instructor and served as
commandant of cadets from 1856 to 1860. Hardee molded the school into a modern learning
institution by adding courses in history and Spanish (the Academy already taught French).  A
lieutenant, Oliver Otis Howard formed a prayer group that helped many cadets with faith-based
counseling. .Lieutenant Colonel William Hardee was replaced by Major John F. Reynolds as
commander of cadets at West Point on September 8, 1860.

He served as the senior major in the 2nd U.S. Cavalry (later renamed the 5th U.S. Cavalry) when
that regiment was formed in 1855 and then the lieutenant colonel of the 1st U.S. Cavalry just
before the American Civil War began. In 1855 Col Hardee bought a house in St. Augustine. Anna
Dummett his sister-in-law would remain throughout the Civil War. His textbook
Rifle and Light
Infantry Tactics or Hardee's Tactics was used by both sides in the Civil War.

In 1861 he was in the
Missouri area. With General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee, Hardee,
now a lieutenant general, saw his greatest strategic success in Tennessee at the
Battle of
Murfreesboro, December 1862. The battle ended in a stalemate, however, with some 23,000 killed
on both sides. Hardee took command of the army after the Battle of Chattanooga, Tennessee
when Bragg resigned for one month. In 1864 and 1865 Hardee's troops fought in major battles as
Georgia land was steadily taken by the Union. He surrendered along with Johnston to Sherman on
April 26 at Durham Station.

After the war, Hardee settled at his second wife's Alabama plantation. After returning it to working
condition, the family moved to Selma, Alabama, where Hardee worked in the warehousing and
insurance businesses. He eventually became president of the Selma and Meridian Railroad.
Hardee was the co-author of The Irish in America, published in 1868. He fell ill at his family's
summer retreat at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, and died in Wytheville, Virginia.  He fell ill
at the family's summer retreat at White Sulfur Springs, West Virginia, and he died in Wytheville,
Virginia, on November 6 1873. He is buried in Live Oak Cemetery, Selma, Alabama.

Civil War Generals who moved to St. Augustine after the Civil War
Two more generals would call St. Augustine home after the Civil War: John McAllister Schofield
and Martin Davis Hardin.

John MeAllister Schofield
Born in Gerry, New York, September 29, 1831 and at the age of 12 moved to Freeport, Illinois. He
graduated from West Point in 1853, ranking seventh in his class. Schofield was born in Gerry, New
York, and graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1853. He served for
two years in the artillery, was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West
Point from 1855 to 1860.

He served throughout the Civil War in command positions. When the Civil War broke out,
Schofield became a major in a Missouri volunteer regiment and served as chief of staff to Maj.
Gen. Nathaniel Lyon until Lyon's death during the Battle of Wilson's Creek (Missouri) in August
1861. Schofield acted with "conspicuous gallantry" during the battle, and received the Medal of
Honor in 1892 for that action. On April 17, 1863, he took command of the 3rd Division in the XIV
Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. On December 15, and December 16, Schofield took part in
Thomas' crowning victory at the Battle of Nashville. For his services at Franklin he was awarded
the rank of brigadier general in the regular army on November 30, 1864, and the brevet rank of
major general on March 13, 1865.

Schofield was appointed by President Andrew Johnson to serve as military governor of Virginia.
From June 1868 to March 1869, Schofield served as Secretary of War. In 1873 he was  the
military officer who recommended that Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, be established as a military base by
the United States.

From 1878 to 1881 he was Superintendent at West Point. On April 5, 1880, an African American
cadet at West Point, Johnson Chesnut Whittaker, was found bruised and beaten in his cot. The
administration claimed he had fabricated his story to win sympathy. Whittaker was court-martialed
and expelled for allegedly faking an assault on himself staged by his fellow cadets. A
Congressional investigation into the incident resulted in Schofield's removal from his post as
superintendent in 1881.

He succeeded to command of the  Army on the death of Lieutenant General Philip S. Sheridan.
From 1888 until his retirement in 1895, Schofield was commanding general of the United States

He was retired for age on his 64th birthday and died in Saint Augustine, Florida, on March 4,
1906. He was buried in Section 2 of Arlington National Cemetery.

Martin Davis Hardin
He was born on the 26th of June, 1837, in Jacksonville, Illinois. After graduating from West Point,
he was an aide to Robert E. Lee at the hanging of John Brown.

In July, 1862, he was made Colonel of the Twelfth Reserve regiment, and in the battle of Bull Run
led Jackson's brigade, holding open ground with determined courage, and near the close of the
engagement received a severe and dangerous wound. He participated in the battle of Gettysburg,
and at Mine Run by his gallantry broke through the enemy's mask, disclosing his purposes. Near
the close of 1863, while on duty near Catlett's Station, he was shot by guerrillas and severely
wounded, losing his left arm. For his service at Gettysburg, he was promoted Brigadier General in
October 1863, in command of Fort De Russy.

He served on a board to examine prisoners of state, and in charge of draft rendezvous at
Pittsburgh until the opening of the spring, when he was restored to his regiment, and put in
command of a brigade of the Reserves. He was wounded at the North Anna, and distinguished
himself at Bethesda Church. On the muster out of the Reserve corps, on the following day,
Colonel Hardin was put in command of the defenses of Washington north of the Potomac and
promoted to Brigadier-General. When attacked by Early, in July, 1864, he rendered important
services in holding him in check until the arrival of the Sixth corps.  On the 15th of August, 1865,
he was assigned to the command of a district in North Carolina.

Brevetted a brigadier general, he remained in the Regular Army when the war ended. Hardin was
named major of the 43d Infantry in 1866, and retired four years later because of his war wounds.
He went on to study law in Chicago and become an attorney also becoming active in veterans
affairs and writing. He had a winter home in St. Augustine,
Florida. His second wife, Amelia
McLaughlin 1863-1939 was the sister-in-law of Irene Castle, the famous dancer. Hardin spent his
last years in the former Ponce de Leon manager's home which would later be called
Generals' House" at 20 Valencia Street in St. Augustine, Florida He died on December 12, 1923.
He is buried in the St. Augustine National Cemetery. He was the last survivor of the West Point
class of 1859.

African-American Education
During the war education comes to St. Augustine (picture of potential school site) with the U.S.
Army.  Teachers across the north  volunteered to teach the newly freed slaves. Two associations
are located in St. Augustine during this time: the New York Freedman's Association and the
American Missionary Association.
The first AMA teacher in Florida Carrie E Jocelyn, began her work in St. Augustine in 1863 and
was soon joined by Rev.(
Report to AMA) and Mrs. George Greeley (Report to AMA). (Joe M
Richardson. Christian Abolitionism: The American Missionary Association and the Florida Negro."
(unpublished) (
Rev Greeley's report from Jacksonville settlement)

Mrs. Greely, in seeking food and clothing for pupils who ranged in ages from 20 to 75, said, "They
were the most destitute objects I ever saw, many of them almost naked."

The Ex-Slaves
The WPA and others in the 1930s begin to record oral biographies of the ex-slaves. Some of
these are tainted by simple childhood memories but the ones recovered for St. Augustine include:
Ed Lycurgas, Cloe Job, Mary Ann Murray. The St. Augustine newspaper also did stories about ex-
slaves in the 1930s:
Christine Mitchell and George Edwards.

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William Wing Loring pre-Mexican War
Florida Archives
William Wing Loring
Civil War Picture
Florida Archives
General Edmond Kirby Smith
Florida Archives
Kirby Smith and Family
Florida Archives
General Stephen Vincent Benet
Library of Congress
General Edmund J. Davis
State of Texas
General William Hardee
Library of Congress
General William J. Hardee
Required memorization for West

The discipline which makes the soldiers
of a free country reliable in battle is not to
be gained by harsh or tyrannical
treatment. On the contrary, such
treatment is far more likely to destroy
than to make an army. It is possible to
impart instruction and give commands in
such a manner and such a tone of voice
as to inspire in the soldier no feeling, but
an intense desire to obey, while the
opposite manner and tone of voice
cannot fail to excite strong resentment
and a desire to disobey. The one mode
or other of dealing with subordinates
springs from a corresponding spirit in the
breast of the commander. He who feels
the respect which is due to others cannot
fail to inspire in them respect for himself.
While he who feels, and hence manifests,
disrespect towards others, especially his
subordinates, cannot fail to inspire hatred
against himself.

John M. Schofield
General John McAllister
General John McAlliester Schofield
General Martin Davis Hardin
General Martin Davis Hardin
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