2nd Spanish Period
East Florida returned to Spain's Charles III
The Treaty of Paris gave control of East Florida (and West Florida) back to Spain's King Charles III.
While he was an absolute monarch, he also followed enlightenment principles. He would start a process of reform in
Spain with the Church. Charles had only become King of Spain in 1758 before giving away East and West Florida to
the British. He would die in 4 years leaving King Charles IV king. King Charles IV would remain on the thrown until
Napoleon would replace him with Napoleon's brother Joseph. In Europe King Charles would be faced with the birth
of Republican France and then the upheaval caused by Napoleon.

John Cruden
The 2nd Spanish period was set with difficulties almost before it began. John Cruden began a plot to seize control of
the colony when the British received the news of the transfer by the Treaty of Paris.

Governor Vizente Manuel de Zespedes
The new Spanish governor was Governor Vizente Manuel de Zespedes. He was a sixty-three year old veteran of the
army commanding an advance force of 500 soldiers. He arrived on June 26 on the
San Matias. Zespedes met with
British Governor Patrick Tonyn and gave him the official papers signed by King George III. The formal ceremony
transferring control to the Spanish occurred July 12, 1784. On July 14 Zespedes issues a proclamation announcing the
beginning of his governorship. Arriving with the convoy was Father Miguel O'Reilly and Father Francisco Traconis.
Father Camps celebrated a thanksgiving mass the next day. By September Father Thomas Hassett reached East
Florida. The transfer took one year. A
census was made to determine who would be staying. The last English officials
left in June of 1785.  The last of the British subjects were gone in December, 1785. The remaining English influence
was the firm of Paton, Leslie and Company that the Spanish kept to trade with the Indians.

Zespedes held his Indian meeting in 1784 with ex-Governor Tonyn. In March Cowkeeper or Secoffee, the Seminole
chief, had died. This made the transition easier since Cowkeeper was anti-Spanish.

An Opportunity of Freedom - Zespedes Proclamation of July 26, 1784
This proclamation prohibited any of the departing ships from taking passengers of any color status without a license
from Zespedes. Blacks had twenty days to clarify their status and obtain a work permit. At least 251 of these were
made to the Spanish government. The British protested but to no avail.

This attitude carried over into the return of runaway slaves from Georgia with the governor affirming that East Florida
would not cooperate with Georgia on the return of runaway slaves because Georgia had not seen first to cooperate
prior to 1763. "One of the provisions of the old rule is that no fugitive Negro from Georgia be returned , as the London
court refused to reciprocate." Vincente Manuel de Zespedes to John Houstoun Governor of Georgia November 28,

Thomas Bell - Pirates
January 24, 1785 a pirate attack took place at Jesse Fish's home on Anastasia Island. Four men anchored west of the
island and rowed to shore. After looting the house they returned to their boat except for Thomas Bell who fell
wounded. He died on the town plaza and his body was shown on the gallows of the Castillo the next day.

Opinion (Independent Gazetteer, Philadelphia, June 17, 1788)
Mr Oswald,
A paragraph in your Saturday's paper, under the Savannah head, complains of the Spaniards in Florida, for harbouring
and protecting our runaway negroes. But why do we complains of the Spaniards in Florida, for harbouring and
protecting our runaway negroes. But why do we complain of the Spaniards? Is not the State of Massachusetts guilty of
the same crime? It is a well known fact that the state has not only given freedom to their own negroes, but it protects
those runaways who come from other States. Now it seemeth to me inconsistent for us to threaten the Spaniards, and
accuse them of injustice, for doing that which we suffer to be done among ourselves. If our government has not energy
enough to remedy the evil at home, how can we expect to do it abroad? It is high time for us to bestir ourselves; for if
matters are suffered to go on this way, our slaves will all leave us, and we at the southward, shall be under the
necessity of making slaves of ourselves; of being reduced to a level with negroes and labour, like the people of New-
England. This will never do....and if the Governor of St. Augustine, or the people of Massachusetts, should "attempt a
repetition of this unjust and ungenerous conduct," of making our negroes freemen, "the affair will be treated some other
way, besides remonstrance only."

United Columbia Alexandria, March 3 Extract of a letter form St. Augustine, East-Florida, dated January 12, 1789
The American Herald and the Worcester Recorder, March 26, 1789)
Our vessels are received with the greatest cordiality by the Spaniards. -- Governour Zelpadez, pays the greatest
attention to every American who comes properly recommended; and the friendly treatment our countrymen receive
from the Officers of the Irish brigade stationed in this town, must lay every American under the greatest obligations to
their hospitable sons of Hibernia, --- Flour and all kinds of provisions from the United States find a good market here,
the commerce in the above articles being entirely free. This indulgence we owe to the uncultivated state of this
province; for St. Augustine, the garrison of St. John's and St. Mary's, are the only inhabited parts of East-Florida, and
these are occupied by men of the military professions, who raise nothing except money, the whole of which is laid out
in American produce."

Juan Nepomuceno de Quesada
Juan Nepomuceno de Quesada became the second governor of Spanish East Florida from July 1790 through March
1796. He had been the Governor of Honduras till this new assignment. His most notable achievement was building the
Cathedral Basilica.

Return of Slaves
May 17, 1790 a royal order was issued directing the Governor of East Florida to apprehend and lock up all Negroes
escaping from the United States and return them to after those claiming ownership had proved their ownership and
paid costs.

American Intelligence. (The Pennsylvania Mercury, and Universal Advertiser, Philadelphia, October 19, 1790)
Savannah, September 23.
A letter from St. Mary's, dated the 10th inst. received by a mercantile house in this city the 19th, contains the following
intelligence, viz.

"We have the pleasure to inform you that the King of Spain has ordered the governors of the Floridas not to receive
any Negroes from the United States of America. An officer arrived here ten days past from the Governor of East-
Florida with a proclamation to this purport. Enclosed you have a copy of the Governor's orders to his officers
commanding on the frontiers, which you may publish, if you see fit, as coming from James Seagrove, Esq. collector of
St. Mary's, lest the information should be doubted."

By a royal schedule of the 17th of last May, his Majesty has been pleased to declare, that the practice of giving
freedom to the Negroes from the United States, who should take refuge in Spanish territories, shall cease for the
present; of which I give you notice, that you should so give to understand to any Negroes who may seek protection on
this frontier. St. Augustine, 23d August, 1790. (signed) Juan Nepomacena de Quesada, Governor East-Florida.
To the Commanding Officers of St. Mary's River, Florida.

Official Information (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, Charleston, March 19, 1792)
The following is delivered by James Seagrove, commissioner on the part of the United States to his excellency Don
Juan Nepomucena de Quesada, governor of the province of East Florida for his concurrence.

That in order to prevent fugitive slaves from the United States taking shelter in Florida, his excellency the governor will
be pleased to offer his proclamation, ordering all officers civil and military within this colony, but particularly those on
the river St. Mary, to stop all such fugitive slaves and without delay convey them to the Spanish post on Amelia island,
there to be detained until a person properly authorized by the United States shall there call and receive them paying, at
same time, a reasonable price for their maintenance, and also, expense of conveying from the place where taken, to the
place of confinement. The sum to be agreed on by his excellency and the commissioners.

That notice be given as soon as possible by the officer commanding at Amelia to the commanding officers at the
American post on St. Mary's, when any fugitive slaves from the United States are under his care.

That his excellency would be pleased to issue severe orders against any person harboring or concealing such fugitive
slaves, but that they be obliged to make them prisoners, and deliver them without delay to the nearest Spanish port,
and from thence to be conveyed to the general place for receiving them at Amelia.

That his excellency will be pleased to order that all fugitive slaves belonging to the United States who have taken
shelter in Florida since the date of his Catholic majesty's order on that head, be immediately restored on the preceding

The commissioner is ready to confer on, and explain any matter relative to the preceding, being with possible respect--
his excellency's devoted very humble servant,
James Seagrove.

The following is a translation of governor Quesada's reply to the preceding.

The governor of East Florida answers as follows to what has been proposed by James Seagrove, Esq; authorized for
the purpose by a credential letter from his excellency Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State to the United States of
America, regarding the negro slaves who may escape from said nation to this province.

Immediately on the receipt of the royal schedule ordering that the freedom that used to be granted to runaway negroes
should cease, the necessary proclamation was issued and the proper directions forwarded to the river St. Mary's.

It is not for the present convenient that the deposit for such run aways should be at Amelia island; I think that this town
is the securest and most proper place.

It remains at the option of the gentleman, commissioner, whether the said runaways shall be employed in the public
works (in which case nothing will be charged for their maintenance or he appoint an attorney here to take charge of
them, their labor, substance, and remitment to the owners in any manner he may think proper. But if the aforesaid
commissioner wishes that the run-aways should be kept in prison without working, the owners must pay for the
maintenance administered, and likewise allow a reasonable gratification to the soldiers or sailors which government, if
required will furnish to conduct them to the frontiers.

Every claimer must prove his property in the negroes reclaimed either by a certificate of the government or by other
documents sufficiently proving his lawful right.

An order will be issued fixing a penalty on any inhabitant who harbors a fugitive slave.

There is no account of even a single negro slave being in the province who fled from the United States within the term
that passed from the date of the royal schedule in question to the promulgation of it in Florida, but even in case there
were such fugitives, it is the opinion of they government that they ought not to be restored nor can it be agreed to
without an express order from the king.
Juan Nepanuceno de Quesada, St. Augustine in Florida.

To his excellency Don Juan Nepomuceno de Quasada, governor of Florida, &c. &c.at St. Augustine.
The beforementioned commissioner on the part of the United States is of opinion

That the government of East Florida does not choose to be responsible for any fugitive slaves from the United States
which in future may shelter themselves in this province---it will be for the interest of their owners that immediately on
discovery, they be confined in prison there to remain until properly applied for.

In order to give as little trouble as possible to government on this occasion; the commissioner has agreed with
Fleming, Esq; of this city, to furnish such fugitive slaves a may be confined in prison with the usual allowance of

It is also understood by the commissioner that in case any assistance should be required from the soldiers of this
government in conveying such slaves to the frontier on the river St. Mary's there to be delivered up, that a reasonable
gratification be allowed and paid by the person receiving them. Which  said three clauses were agreed to by
James Seagrove.

St. Augustine in Florida.
7th Aug. 1791

Department of state to wit.
The preceding five pages contain true copies of the papers which passed between James Seagrove, Esq; duly
authorised to act therein by the president of the United States and Don Juan Nepomuceno de Quesada, governor of
East Florida. Certified under my hand and seal of office this fifteenth day of December 1791.
Thomas Jefferson

Tovar House
The probable date for the building of the current Tovar house is post 1791 when Geronimo Alvarez bought the

Father Thomas Hassett
Father Thomas Hassett was a new priest for St. Augustine in 1783. Father Miguel O'Reilly was another Irish priest
who had trained in Spain. Father Francisco Troconis y Rosas was appointed by Governor Zespedes "to teach the
poor without charge." He was the chaplain of the Royal Hospital. In 1791 Father Troconis was promoted to Cuba.
Father Hassett started (or continued) the school from 1787. To see how busy the Fathers were see the
baptism list for
1800. Another important Irish person in the city was Carlos Howard, the secretary of the government.

The Cathedral
The original parish church was located where A1A Alehouse is today. It was called Nuestra Senora de los
s. The second parish church was located on St. George Street south of the plaza. On February 13, 1788
government officials, at the urging of Father Hassett, ordered work to begin on a suitable Catholic Church. The
Spanish crown approved the plans in March of 1790. The
Cathedral was started in 1793 in Spanish mission style. It
represents the oldest Catholic congregation in the United States with records dating back to the 16th century. The
original architect was Mariano de la Rocque. The contractor was Don Miguel Ysnardy (who acquired the title of
Steward of the building).

The Cathedra
l (picture) was dedicated on December 8, 1797 the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. There are
three people buried inside the Cathedral: Father Camps, Don Miguel Ysnardy, and Father Font who died within a year
of his arrival in St. Augustine (January 13, 1793). The Cathedral has parts of the ol
d Numbre de Dios, Nuestra
Senora de Guadalupe de Toloma
to, and Nuestra Senora de la Soledad within its building stones as they were all
torn down for the building of the Cathedral. (
Deaths from 1784 - 1809)

Treaty of Friendship with the United States (See Treaty)
On October 27, 1795 a treaty was reached between the United States and Spain called The Treaty of Friendship,
Limits, and Navigation. Articles II, III, and V specifically deal with Florida.

Bartolome Morales
Colonel Bartolome Morales became the acting Governor of East Florida in March 1796. Enrique White the official
governor was ill. Morales was governor until June 1796. He would also serve as acting governor in 1800 during
another illness of Governor White.

Plans for a British Attack
A war broke out between England and Spain in 1796. Engineer Pedro Diaz Berrio was in
charge of the defense of the Castillo. He built emplacements for two guns in each of the
three salients of the water battery. A "bomb-proof cover of earth was placed above the
powder magazine vaults. He also placed a copper-sheet ventilator so that more air would
come into the room and decrease humidity.

Enrique White
Brigadier Enrique White become governor in June 1796 and served until March 1811. He was born in Dublin, Ireland.
Before coming to St. Augustine he served as Governor of West Florida from May 1793 through March 1811. He
officially gave the name Fernandina to the town on Amelia Island. When Governor White died he was buried in
Tolomato cemetery in St. Augustine.

This Day's Mail (The Minerva & Mercantile Evening Advertiser, New York, June 21, 1797)
Savannah, June 2. The following authentic information is received by Capt. Cooke, from a correspondent of St.

Town of St. Mary's in Georgia,
24th May, 1797.
Yesterday returned to this place, James Seagrove, Esq. commissioner from the United States of America, to the
government of Florida; and Thomas King, Esq. agent from the state of Georgia. These gentlemen have been at St.
Augustine, for a month past, during which time an agreement took place for an exchange of all fugitive slaves from the
United States, or his Catholic majesty's province of East Florida, from the 2d of September, 1790, until the 19th inst.
All fugitives, prior to the 2d of September, 1790, remain to be settled by the king of Spain and the United States.

It is with pleasure we inform, from undoubted authority, that Mr. Seagrove has entered into a treaty with the Spanish
government, whereby a total stop is put to all fugitive slaves, or servants, being people of color, from receiving
countenance or protection in Florida. Should any such people go there, on being discovered, they will be thrown into
prison, until demanded by their owners, when they will be delivered up.

This treaty, we are informed, extends to horses, cattle, and all other property, that may stray or be stolen, and be taken
into Florida, are to be returned without delay or expense. The United States are reciprocally bound to the Spanish
Government, so soon as the President and Senate of the same, shall approve and ratify this treaty.

Twenty seven of the American Fugitive Slaves were brot to this place on the 22d inst. in the sloop
Harriet, Captain
Cooke from St. Augustine, well secured in irons. They are now safely lodged in the new prison in this town, until proof
be made by their owners. Eleven runaways are left in prison in St. Augustine, as as hostages for the return of an equal
number now detained in Georgia, belonging to Spanish subjects. A list of the negroes delivered up, will be forwarded
to be published. The commissioners speak in high terms, of the polite treatment they experienced from Governor
White, as well as from gentlemen individuals. There appeared a great desire in the government and many of the
subjects to have these runaways sent back, as they had become so great a nuisance to that country, that most of them
were chained, and at work among the convicts.

16 Feb 1800
Penalver to White
Don Miguel Ysnardy, Captain of Militia, Coucilman and general Depositary has served for years as Steward of
Building of St. Augustine wih zeal and honor acording to the information given me by  Privisor the Don Thomas Hassett.

He has petitioned me to dispatch him the formal title and desirous of doing so without prejudice to the regalia of the
Royal Patronage which you exercise I propose it to you so that with your consent I am executing it. God guard you
many years.

Don Manuel Solana House
This house at 20 Charlotte Street was located on the site of much earlier houses including a tabby house. Manuel
Solana built the house  after 1788. The house later became the home of
Oliver Bronson, Jr. a county commissioner
after the Civil War. The house stands as a good example of Spanish Colonial architecture of the 2nd Spanish period.
The main section of the house was constructed of coquina. This house has a loggia built on the rear (visible from Aviles
Street). The flooring is all wood

Juan Nepomuceno de Quesada and the Rebellion of 1795
1790 saw the arrival of a new Governor --- Juan Nepomuceno de Quesada. In June of 1795 East Florida was
invaded by Georgians and unhappy Floridians. The invaders were able to capture Fort Juana (June 30) on July 9 the
invaders who were comprised of former British subjects, American transplants into Florida and Georgians crossed the
St. Johns River. They were lead by Richard Lang, a local trouble maker. San Nicholas was overrun and Lieut Ignacio
Lopez and 28 members of the Catalan Light Infantry were captured. Th
e San Simon, a Spanish gunboat, and its crew
were also captured. They flew the French flag over the forts. By August 2 the captives were abandoned and the rebels
had retreated north of the St. Mary's River. 67 people were considered rebels by the Spanish government. Daniel
Hogans, Richard Malpas, Solomon King, and George Arons died in the Castillo as prisoners. Francis Goodwin went
insane.  None of the sentences were carried out

Chapel in the Castillo
This time period also saw the building of the Chapel in the Castillo. This was also engineered by Mariano de la Rocque.

Runaway Slaves
Because the Georgians did not comply with the terms of the 1791 agreement on runaway slaves with the Georgians
trying to show legal claims with simply a sworn statement. The agreement was officially terminated.

St. John's Eve
St. John's Eve, June 23, was a one observer described it, "the great drama of this light-hearted people," a time of
general merrymaking based on the ancient summer solstice celebration. Maskers delighted in dressing up as highborn
persons of the opposite sex -- the women representing the ancient chivalry on gaily comparisoned steeds, and the men
wearing the trappings of the ancient dames. This small carnival, which sometimes stretched to three days, featured
posey dances, parades and heavily decorated altars set up all over town where young dark-eyed girls offered
bouquets to male passersby who took their fancy.

Extract of a letter from Newport, in the State of Georgia (Supplement to the City Gazette & Daily Advertiser -
Charleston S. C., June 24, 1795)
Yesterday arrived the schooner Rhoda, Whipple, New-Orleans, 15 days.
Extract of a letter from Newport, in the State of Georgia, to a gentleman in this city.
"May 26, 1795. I have been credibly informed that gen. Clarke, of this state, who took a commission in the French
service, has been the last week to inspect the sea-board and in-let of St. Mary's river, and is now actually building a
fort on the said river for carrying on an expedition against the Spainards. I was also informed, by a gentleman lately
from St. Augustine, that the inhabitants of East-Florida in general, and a large majority of those of West-Florida, are
disposed to revolt; and they are determined, as soon as Clarke enters the Spanish territory, to join him. Numbers of
young men here feel anxious to obtain commissions in the expedition against the Floridas.

May 27. Arrived here, at this instant, two Spanish soldiers, deserters from the garrison of St. Augustine, who say
desertions daily take place, and that they are in a staring condition there."

State of Muskogee
In 1795, along with the Seminoles, William August Bowles  formed a short-lived state in northern Florida known as the
"State of Muskogee", with himself as its "Director General". In 1800, declared war on Spain. Bowles operated two
schooners and boasted of a force of 400 frontiersmen, former slaves, and warriors.

Spain offered $6,000 and 1,500 kegs of rum for his capture. He was transported to Madrid  Charles IV of Spain's
attempted to make him change sides. He then escaped, commandeering a ship and returning to the Gulf of Mexico.

In 1803, not long after having declared himself 'Chief of all Indians present' at a trial council, he was betrayed and
turned over to the Spanish and died in prison in Havana two years later.

The United States took note (From Carlos Martínez de Yrujo in St. Augustine):
18 May 1803. James Madison knows how much trouble “the Adventurer Bowles” has given Spain. Was assured in
his conference with James Madison and Dearborn that the U.S. would take efficacious measures to apprehend Bowles
whenever he was in U.S. territory. Encloses a copy of a letter just received from Henry White, governor of East
Florida, reporting that “the Incendiary Bowles” is within U.S. territory. Friendship and the shared interest of Spain and
the U.S. in cutting the thread of the intrigues and machinations of “this daring Adventurer,” as well as the spirit of the
[Pinckney] treaty, require the U.S. government to take the most active measures to apprehend Bowles. Does not
doubt that James Madison desire to promote the peace and welfare of U.S. citizens and harmony between the U.S.
and Spain will lead to his giving this request the attention it merits and that Bowles, if within the U.S., will be arrested.

Enrique White and General Jorge Biassou
.On June 5, 1796 Enrique White became the governor. He would remain governor through 1811. Don Enrique White
was a Dublin-born man before he became the Governor.  He was born in 1741 and from the age of 22 spent his life in
the service of the Spanish Crown.  He served some time as an officer in the Louisiana Regiment.  He never married
and owned no real estate.  He owned several slaves Jorge purchased in 1789 from Brigadier Don Eugenio O'Neill,
Col of the Irish Regiment. Josefa Simona (female) purchased in St Augustine from Antonio Berta. Gracia purchased
the same year from his predecessor in office Brigadier Don Juan Nepomuceno Quesada.   They were all freed at his

In January of 1796 General Jorge Biassou, his wife Romana Jacobo and twenty-three of his followers arrived in St.
Augustine from Havana, Cuba. General Biassou was given command of a black militia unit in the summer of 1800 to
reconnoiter and provide intelligence south of St. Augustine at the plantation of Josiah Dupont near Matanzas.  On July
14, 1801 General Biassou died at his home in St. Augustine and was buried in the Tolomato cemetery
. (See
Reconstructed Houses for information on General Biassou's house.)

Treaty of Friendship with the United States
On August 2, 1796 the United States and Spain proclaimed a treaty of friendship. One point that would be used
against East and West Florida was article 5 which talked about controling the Indians within the American and Spanish
borders. This would be used to justify invasions of East and West Florida and the First Seminole War. (
See Treaty)

Father Miguel O'Reilly
Father Miguel O'Reilly held school in St. Augustine. His house on Aviles Street was restored and  opened as a
museum by the Sisters of St. Joseph.

In 1800 a congress of Seminoles and Lower Creeks elected adventurer, William Augustus Bowles,to be the director
of their new State of Moskogee, which promptly declared war on Spain. For the next three years, Bowle's followers
wreaked havoc in Florida. They raided plantations and supplies outside St. Augustine, and abducted and killed slaves
and settlers.

A Small fire in the Church
7 Nov 1800
White to O'Reilly
I find very convenient the proceeding that in your letter of yesterday you intimate should be used to find out if there was
any delinquency in the unfortunate fire which reduced to ashes the Altar of this Church where the Image of Our Lady
of the Rosary was located and who is culpable of it.  But for that it will be necessary for you to be pleased to inform
me if in addition to the Sacristan, whose carelessness inclines one to believe he was careless of the misfortune, there is
any other person who severs in the Church could give the reason for it, so that with this news I may be pleased to
govern and institute the proceeding which I am going to begin without prejudice to the Ecclesiastical jurisdiction which I
will aid as the circumstances require.

1800 Illness of Governor White
Lieutenant Colonel Morales and royal auditor Zamorano held positions of leadership in 1800 due to the illness of
Governor White from 1800-01.

Governor Don Enrique White died in the city of St. Augustine on April 13, 1811. Lorenzo Capo for 40 years the
sexton of the church was appointed the director of the funeral ceremonies and a catafalque of wood covered with
black cloth was built by Antonio Llambias who also made the wooden coffin. The body was prepared for burial by
Andres Pacetti, the barber, and Maria de la Luz and Maria Molla, who also made a pair of back cloth shoes for the
corpse.  Preparation for the burial included an 8 pecos shave for the corpse.  The ladies also bathed and dressed the

The priest was Father Miguel Crosby. A gravestone was to be made measuring 6 feet long by 3 feet wide and 2 inches
thick.  This should be somewhere in Tolomato Cemetary.

Attack by the Miccouskee Indians on Dupont and Boelli Plantations
In 1802 an attack was made on the plantations of Dupont and Bonelli 30 miles south of St. Augustine. The elder son,
Thomas Bonelli, was killed in the attack and his body was taken to St. Augustine. Joseph Bonelli's wife and family
were held captive by the Mioccouskees for almost two years (see
Slave Claims for full depositions.) The Miccouskee
band would later become part of the Seminole nation.

The Castillo Repairs
In 1802 a new engineer was appointed: Nicolas Barcelo. Work was done to the redid the
vault on the north curtain. and filled in a large crack on the San Pablo Bastion. He also had
the stairway to the terreplein rebuilt.

Jose Bonely Sells His Land (America State Papers)
Senor Governor: Jose Bonely, of this vicinity, to your excellency, respectfully says: That, as will appear from the
annexed certificate issued in his favor by the secretary of this government, on the 16th of January, 1799, your
excellency was pleased to grant him 600 acres of land south of the orange grove at Matanzas bar, distant twenty-five
miles from this city, at which place he then settled himself, cultivating them personally, with his children, until about the
first of last year, when he was obliged forcibly to abandon them, in the exercise of his natural right, which obliged him
to retire to this place, driven by the Indians, who, your excellency knows, (and it is notorious,) abused his family, taking
all of them to their towns with the greatest rigor and inhumanity, leaving his eldest son dead; and, although it is true, that
through the many and effective steps taken by your excellency, I have obtained (getting after much time) my wife and
three children, it is also true they retain two of each sex from me. By this occurrence, which has reduced him almost to
beggary, he has determined to sell the right which he has acquired to said lands, with the improvements which he made
upon them when he cultivated them, which houses are exposed, from being abandoned by the petitioner since the day
of his misfortune; and for this purpose he supplicates your excellency most earnestly to pity his misfortunes, and
through an effect of charity, to be pleased to permit him to make the aforesaid sale, that with its proceeds he may be
compensated for the damages and injuries which he has suffered; which favor he hopes to merit from the piousness of
your excellency's heart.
St. Augustine of Florida, September 23, 1803.
For Josely Bonely, who does not know how to write, it is done by
Fernando de La Maza Aredondo

More Castillo Repairs
In 1804 the new Engineer Manuel de Hita reported on the leaking vaults and the floor
beams of the upper stories were rotted. A crack appeared on the keystone of a vault and
was repaired.  In 1805 the sally-port floor was replaced and the old magazine was replaced.
The old powder room was converted into a lumber storehouse and another vault was
converted into an armory.

Go to Second Spanish Page 2
Dr. Bronson's St. Augustine History
2nd Spanish Period
1784 - 1821

ab urbe condita - 219 to 256
"Oblectat me, Roma, twas spectare ruinas;
Ex cujus lapsu gloria prisca patet."
St. Augustine, Florida. Catholic Church
Cooley, Sam A. (Samuel A.), photographer
Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1869]
Chapel of St. Marks at Castillo
Rebuilt in the 1790s
Library of Congress HABS
Huertas-Canova House (Prince Morat House)
Francis Benjamin Johnson
Custom Search
U. S. Map
William Augustus Bowles
John Houston McIntosh
Like us on
St. Augustine of Hippo
King Charles III
(January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788)
King Charles IV
(December 14, 1788, until abdication March 19,
George Fleming ((1760-1821)
For his military service in Spanish East Florida, Fleming was granted 1,000 acres on the
west side of the St. John’s River northwest of St. Augustine by the Governor of Spanish
East Florida on October 29, 1790:  “distinguished and extraordinary service, to which he
contributed both his property and person in defense of the said province at different
periods, sacrificing and abandoning his property, as a faithful subject, worthy of every
recompense for his love, fidelity, and patriotism”. (The beginning of
1st Spanish Period 1565 to 1600  
Reconstruction 1865 to 1876
1st Spanish Period 1600 to 1700  
Post-Reconstruction 1876 to 1885
1st Spanish Period 1700 to 1763   
Flagler Construction 1885 to 1890
British Period 1763 to 1783
Flagler Era 1890 to 1900
British Period  1775 to 1783
Progressive 1900 - 1912
2nd Spanish Period 1783 to 1803
New Freedom and World War I
Second Spanish Period 1803 to 1821
The Roaring 1920s
American Territorial 1821 to 1832
The Great Depression
American Territorial 1833 to 1845
World War II
American Statehood 1845 to 1860
Post World War II Era
Civil War 1860 to 1865  - Page 1
Civil Rights 1960 to 1965
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 2
St. Augustine Rebounds 1965-1990
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 3
Subject Index
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 4
Timeline of St. Augustine History
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 5
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 6
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 7