American Territorial Period
E pluribus unum
1832 - 1845

ab urbe condita - 268 to 280

Seminole Wars
The Seminole Wars deeply affected the history of territorial St. Augustine.  The word Seminoles was first used
by John Stuart, the British Indian Agent, in 1771. The word was a name mean
ing "wild people," because they
wanted to draw apart and be by themselves. However they were part of the Creek Confederation. In 1824
negotiations were held at
Moultrie Creek about 5 miles south of St. Augustine. The Seminoles chose
Neamathla the head chief of the Mikasukis as their leader. This treaty created several reservations for the
Seminoles in Florida. The U. S. Senate ratified the treaty on December 23, 1823. The Seminoles traveled to
Washington, D. C. to talk about their lands (See
Seminole Talk)

By 1832 the official policy of the United States government became removal to west of the Mississippi.
treaty was signed May 9, 1832 for removal. By then a Seminole that the whites called Powell who would later
become Osceola. His name was a corruption of the Creek words Asi Yahola meaning "black-drink singer". In
June of 1835 Osceola was seized and put in irons. He was forced to sign the document which validated the
Treaty of Payne's Landing and also to bring in a band of followers.

One of the driving issues of the movement to remove the Seminoles was the running away of slaves to the
Seminoles. Important African-American leaders in the Seminoles included Abraham, John Caesar, and John

Settlements around the city were targets of attack. By 1835 the sugar plantations south of St. Augustine came
under attack. Even though Brigadier General Joseph M. Hernandez tried to defend the area with a force of
militia a Mikasuki chief named Philip destroyed the whole industry.  This forced people back into the city
proper.  It also slowed tourism from the north, but it became a military depot for a short time.

Osceola ambushed Agent Thompson at Fort King. Fifty miles to the south a relief column under the command
of Major Francis L. Dade with eight officers and a hundred enlisted men from Company C, Second Artillery
and Company B, Third Artillery marched toward Fort King. They were attacked and killed by Micanopy,
Alligator, and Jumper's bands. The St. Augustine National Cemetery has the monuments and
the graves of
Dade's command.

St. Augustine supports Col. William Gates (see

Florida (Connecticut Gazette, October 26, 1836)
By accounts from St. Aguustine to Sept. 29th, we learn that Gov. Call with 1000 volunteers had arrived at
Suwannee river, and was to have crossed on the previous Sunday, and taken up the line of march for the
Withlacoochee. Gen. Jessup is on his way to Tampa and 250 Tennessee volunteers are expected hourly at
Garevy's Ferry to join the U. S. Troops under Maj. Pierce, whence they will move South.

Cha's Downing, Esq. is appointed Aid-de-camp to Gov. Call, and was immediately to join him with several
young men who had volunteered.

The terms of service of Capt. Dummett's company expired on the 25th.

The post at Hanson's and Weadman's plantations is to be occupied by Capt. Curry's
Mandarin volunteers.

In the U. S. Hospital, St. Augustine, there are 224 sick. We are informed that of about 600 troops at Garey's
Picolata, and St. Augustine, there are about 400 on the sick report. Three deaths have occurred the
past week.

Mrs. Johns who was wounded and scalped by a party of Indians on the 16th, has been conveyed to
Jacksonville;' it is thought she will recover. The citizens of
Jacksonville, with a highly creditable liberality, have
subscribed $100 for her benefit, and if necessary it will be increased.

January 15, 1837  Hanson Plantation (later site of Florida Memorial College) An attack was made on a
sentinel posted at Hanson's plantation while they were attempting to steal horses. Captain Hanson ambushed
the party on January 16 at the plantation of Col. James Williams toward Moultrie. John Caesar and Joe Merritt
killed and Guy wounded by Captain Hanson's Company.

The City of St. Augustine responding to the material found on John Caesar and others killed by Captain
Hanson pass
an ordinance to prevent the selling of ammunition to slaves, free negroes and mulatto's on
January 23, 1837.

March 1837  Andrew Gue (around 21 years old born circa 1816) was captured by Lieut. Ferreira of Captain
Hanson's company of mounted volunteers. He had remained in the neighborhood of the Hanson Plantation. He
received 3 wounds in January. He subsisted on roots, etc. until he was induced from hunger to come further in
for provisions.

May 1837
Slave insurrection worries.

In October, 1837 near Fort Payton (Moultrie Creek) General Hernandez on orders from General Jesup ignored
a flag of truce and captured Osceola, Coa Hadjo and seventy-one warriors plus six women. Philip, Blue
Snake, and Coacoochee already had been captured in the St. Augustine area.  On the night of November 28,
1837 Coachoochee, Cowaya , sixteen warriors and two women escaped from Fort Marion. In December of
1837 Micanopy, Yaholoochee, Tuskegee, Nocose Yahola and seventy-eight other Indians were captured
under a flag of truce.  Seminoles (Osceola, Wildcat, John Horse  and 18 others) were also held as prisoners at
the Castillo (now called Fort Marion - after Swamp Fox Francis Marion of Revolutionary War fame). On
January 31, 1838 Osceola died a prisoner at Fort Moultrie in South Carolina. Dr. Frederick Weedon from St.
Augustine cut off the head from the body and kept it. The rest of the body was buried at Fort Moultrie.

September 14, 1838 members of the St. Augustine community sign
a petition urging the arrest and
banishment of the Merritt family on charges of selling guns to the Indians. Randal Irving was also
summoned by
the Judge of the Superior Court on the 13 day of October, 1838.Stricter laws are passed against slaves and
free blacks (
Ordinance for the better police of the City of St. Augustine and Ordinance for the Better regulation
of Negro Slaves and Free Persons of Color)

On May 23, 1840 a theatrical troupe and other travelers en route by stage from Picolata to St. Augustine were
attacked by Coacoochee (Wild Cat) and his band. One member of the troupe and four passengers were
killed. Indians would appear in town lated dressed in Shakespearian costumes from the stage. (
See Picolata

William Jenkins Worth becomes the commander of the U.S. forces in Florida and he began the destruction of
the villages and sources of supply for the Seminoles. The war was officially ended in August of 1842. His wife
and daughters would later move to St. Augustine and inhabit the stone house along the Bayfront (which was
later moved --- stone by stone). One daughter would marry
Col. John Sprague who would write a book about
the Seminole War
(Florida War) and would be in charge of the military reconstruction of St. Augustine and
North Florida after the Civil War.

William T. Sherman was in St. Augustine as part of the Third Artillery. Lieutenant William Austin Brown was the
commander in St. Augustine with company E and G at his disposal. Col William Gates would later be in
charge of the headquarters in St. Augustine. Sherman considered U. S. Judge Bronson one of the most
pleasant persons there.

Many famous soldiers will come through St. Augustine at this time including
William T. Sherman (photo) (story
of capture of Wild Cat) , Winfield Scott (photo), Braxton Bragg, Persifor Fraiser Smith  and future president
Zachary Taylor
. The St. Augustine National Cemetery is started with the soldiers that die in the Seminole War.
Dade Monument)

treaty is made January 4, 1845 between the U.S., Seminoles and the Creek nation which defined the
relationships between the Seminoles and the Creeks

Public Educa
The Florida Educational Society   About a decade after Florida had become American territory arose the first
noteworthy movement toward the establishment of a system of general education. It originated in the territorial
capital and before 1840 had spread to other sections where there were considerable centers of population. In
January, 1831, the Florida Educational Society was organized at Tallahassee for the avowed purpose of
encouraging such a system. Governor Duval was one of the chief movers in its establishment and in his official
capacity also appointed a commission to investigate and recommend a plan. The following year, attempts
were made to establish a agricultural and manual labor school near Tallahassee, founded after a similar
institution at Fellenberg, Switzerland, and a free school at St. Augustine, the latter under the auspices of the
Florida Educational Society.  In January of 1831, the Florida Educational Society was formed in Tallahassee
with the object of collecting and diffusing information on subjects pertaining to education and to procure the
establishing of such general system of instruction as would meet the needs and conditions of the Territory.  

Several branches of this society were formed, the most important being located in St. Augustine ad called the
St. Johns and Mosquito County Society. The primary purpose of this group was the promotion of educational
welfare in the counties for which it was named.The St. Augustine auxiliary chapter of the Florida Education
Society was started in 1831.   The branch of the Florida Educational Society at St. Augustine did make a
rather thorough report in 1831 of educational conditions in St. Johns and Mosquito counties. This showed that
there were 569 children under fifteen years of age in the former county, and 579 in the latter. Of these, 463
lived in St. Augustine, but only 137 of them were receiving daily instruction in schools.    Report of educational
society St. Johns and Mosquito County 1831:   "The board, in attending to the state of education in both
counties, have to say that, according to the census taken last year, there are 579 white children of both sexes
under 15 years of age - 238 of which are under 5 - 10 in Mosquito County and 569 in St. Johns. The number of
children in our city (St. Augustine) - the only one where a school is found is 463; that is to say: in Castle Ward,
105; in Custom-house Ward 168, in Hospital Ward 87; and Barrack Ward, 103. Of these there are 137
children of both sexes which attend school daily. Of the nine schools, there are three containing 57 children,
conducted by teachers qualified to impart elementary instruction in the respective branches of education. The
rest may be considered as primary schools of all sorts, which, from the very reducted salary their parents can
afford to pay, cannot much be depended upon for their stability.  Out of the number of 341 children, between
the ages of 5 and 15, there are but 57 who are likely to obtain elementary education; 80 receive but precarious
instruction; and 204 are left to grow up in ignorance and its attendant consequences. From this number,
however, there are about 30 boys who have been receiving for the last three months two hours' daily instruction
in spelling, reading, and even writing."   

There were more than twenty-three private schools, nine academies, and three seminaries taught by more
than thirty-nine teachers in St. Augustine during the territorial Period, 1821-1845 .  

The drive for an education system begins in March 31, 1832 but the taxpayers of St. Augustine revolt, the tax is
rescinded and the school is forced to close.
(delinquent tax list and letters on school) This leaves private
schools to attempt the job of educating the youth of St. Augustine.

By October 11, 1832 the new school was dead. A tax revolt stopped the collection of the tax for the new school:

Council resolution:
Whereas certain persons in this Community have not only arrayed themselves against the Free School
recently established by the City Council, but have operated upon others to resist and oppose this useful
institution, and whereas this opposition have interrupted the collection of the school Tax by causing to be
issued certain writs of replevin, to replevy the property distrained upon, claiming that the City council have no
power under the act of incorporation to establish a school in this city; and whereas the City Council suspended
further proceedings to collect and tax until the Judge of the State Court should arrive in order to have the
question of power tried and determined by said Judge; and on his arrival did offer to the said opposition to try
said question and use every effort to have the same tried, but they denied and refused to do so. by which said
acts and doings of said persons, it has become impossible to collect said school tax, and for the present to
carry on said school.

Resolved, therefore, that said free school be for the present, suspended until the said question can be tried
and determined at the next Superior Court in November ensuing.

Resolved, That the thanks of this board be given to the teachers of said school for the faithful and diligent
performance of their duties.

Resolved, That the Mayor ... his proclamation ...

Resolved, That the forgoing ... and resolutions be printed in the next Florida herald John Gray Jr. Mayor.

Mayor's Proclamation
In presence of a resolution of the City Council,I hereby make known to the citizens of St. Augustine, that the
free school recently established in this city under and in virtue of the act of incorporation of the 4th of February
1831 has been suspended. It is proper and perhaps expected by those who have both advocated and
supported so useful and beneficial an institution to explain the motives and reasons which have induced the
City Council to discontinue it. A charitable and benevolent feeling for those whose station in life rendered them
unable to bestow upon their children the advantages of education, and an honest and thorough conviction of
the important benefits that must necessarily result to the community from a measure effectually calculated to
improve the minds and morals of the young who are now springing up among us, and render them useful
citizens, and virtuous members of society, induced the City Council to establish this school by taxation, as the
only mode which could render it permanent. the plan was the only effectual one that could be suggested, and
which is in general and practical operation in many parts of the United States, where hundreds and thousands
of the youth of our country are enjoying and reaping the benefits of a good education on economical terms.
Various objections were stated by certain persons to this institutional its first establishment, but obviously
intended to cloak the real motives of their opposition, as we think that no reason offered by them can strike the
mind of any reasonable being with any force whatever. Three competent persons were appointed to conduct
the school, one female and two male instructors, to receive the three a sum not exceeding $1100 per annum,
and this raised by a tax in proportion to the amount of property owned by those subjected to it. but the small
circle of opposition soon began to expand, until the most decided and inveterate hostility, threw every
embarrassment that could be devised in the way, and resorted to every measure that could impede and finally
annihilate the school, by refusing themselves to pay, and encouraging others also to resist the payment of the
taxes necessary for its support. They have succeeded, and let the consequences rest with them. the school is
ended - one hundred and twenty children are again turned adrift; those, whose parents can afford it, to
continue their education in some other institution, but those whose parents are unable to assist them, to grow
up in ignorance, and at some future day to curse in bitterness of heart those who have thus contributed to their
degradation and wretchedness.....

Let those alone rejoice, who grudge to the children of the poor, the benefits of learning.
John Gray, Jr. Mayor

1834 February Elections
Elections were held in February 1834 for a Delegate to Congress, Clerk of the County Court, a sheriff, a
Coroner and County Surveyor for two year terms.The election in St. Augustine was held in the Council Room of
the city with Estever Arneu, Samuel Northrod and James Gould as inspectors. The second polling place with
North River at the house of Edwin T. Jenkes, Esq. with the inspectors of Edwin T. Jenekes, Robert Mickler and
Henry Ferris. The third polling place was in Matanzas at the plantation of General Hernandez. With inspectors
of Jas. M. Hermandez and John T. Williams. The fourth polling place was Palatka (then part of St. Johns
County) at the house of Jesse Brush, Esq. with Jesse Brush and Darrus Firrnan inspectors. This was done by
the order of Judge E. B. Gould.

June 12, 1834
Will be sold at public auction on the 2d day of July next, at the market to the highest bidder the house
(excepting the stone and brick) formerly occupied as a free school. this building to be removed by the
purchaser within two weeks from the day of sale. Conditions cash. By order of the city council James M.
Gould, Clerk.

Another beginning of public school education in St. Augustine and St. Johns county can be traced from 1835
when the will of Charles Lawton, a former resident of St. Augustine, left the sum of one thousand dollars to the
City Council of St. Augustine for the education of the poor children of the town, the sum to be invested in some
stocks or bonds with interest to be paid annually.

Extract from Will of Charles Lawton of Charleston Dated 26th of June 1835. Proved Feb 7 1835.
Recorded at Charleston office of judge of probate in Will Book H., page 420

"I give and bequeath to the City Council off the city of St. Augustine, East Florida, one thousand dollars for the
education of the poor in that city, this sum to be invested by my executors in some safe stock and the  interest be paid
annually to the City Council aforesa

The above extract is the whole of that portion of the will which relates to the said legacy. The money would
used throughout to the 1870s

How to Get to St. Augustine 1835
(St. Augustine Florida Herald)
Inland Conveyance to St. Augustine, E. F.
The improvements made in the machinery of the fine steam packet Florida, Capt. Hubbard, will enable her to
form with ease a trip every week, and will regularly in line with the Steam packet Wm. Seabrook, from
Charleston, leave Savannah every Monday afternoon:
Arriving at Darien every Tuesday morning
St. Mary's every Tuesday evening
Jacksonville every Wednesday morning
Picolata every Wednesday evening

Picolata every Thursday afternoon
Jacksonville every Thursday night,
St. Marys every Friday,
Darien every Friday night or Saturday morning,
Arrives at Savannah every Saturday after noon.

Stages in readiness at Picolata for St. Augustine, 18 miles; for further particular apply to R. & W. King & Co.
Savannah, Nov. 18, 1835.I

David Levy Yulee (for full biography see)
In 1836 David Levy Yulee was admitted to the bar in St. Augustine after practicing law here. He was born
David Levy in St. Thomas, West Indies on June 12, 1810. His political career includes delegate to the State
constitutional convention in 1838. Clerk to the Territorial legislature in 1841. Territorial delegate to congress
from March 4, 1841-March 3, 1845. A U.S. Senator from 1845 to 1851. Changed his name to David Levy
Yulee in 1846 and was elected to the United States Senate from 1855 till he withdrew on January 21, 1861.
He is known as the "Father of Florida's Railroads". He died on October 10, 1886

Charles Downing
In March of 1837 Charles Downing, Virginia born, but a lawyer from St. Augustine was elected to Congress.
He served from March 4, 1837- March 3, 1841. He had also been a member of the legislative council of the
Territory of Florida in 1837. He died in St. Augustine in 1845 and was buried in the Protestant Cemetery

Tax Records 1837
The damage of the Seminole War to the St. Augustine economy can be viewed through the tax records of

St. Augustine Patrols
The City of St. Augustine operated patrols of its citizens to watch the city at night. The major reason for these
patrols was fears of a slave revolt, etc.
The patrol records stretch from 1838 to 1867.

October 17, 1839
Wanted to Purchase
A Negro Boy about 16 or 18 years of age for employment as a domestic servant in a small family in this City -- and also
a little black girl about 12 or 14 years of age for a chamber maid to a young lady --- for both of whom a fair and
reasonable price will be paid. Apply to the printer for the name of person to be the purchas

How to Get to St. Augustine (1841)
Regular Packet, Between St. Augustine & Charleston

The Packet Schooner,
Empire Lyman Southwick, Master, will leave the above ports weekly. Invalids, and the
public generally, are respectfully informed that this packet has extensive and airy accommodations, both for
Ladies and Gentlemen; and for speed and safety cannot be surpassed.

The Subscriber returns his thanks to his friends, and to those who give his vessel the preference generally, and
trusts that by strict attention he will continue to merit a share of public patronage.
Lyman Southwick

Theater Troop Attacked May 27, 1840
We learn from a passenger in steamer General Clinch, Capt. Brooks from Black Creek, that on Saturday
forenoon, between 9 and 10 o'clock, Mr. Forbe's theatrical company, with some others, were on their way from
Picolata to St. Augustine, and within five or six miles of the latter place, (the party occupying two wagons,)
when the wagon in the rear was attacked by a party of Indians, and Mr. C. Vase killed. Two others are missing,
supposed to be a part of Mr. Forbe's company. Mr. F. it seems, was in the front wagon with the lagies of the
party, who escaped, and reached St. Augustine in safety. It is supposed that the Indians conceived the wagons
to be a military escort. We congratulate the estimable Mr. Forbes on his escape.

St. Augustine, April 2, 1841
Charleston and St. Augustine Packet
Stephen & Frances
The above vessel having been newly fitted up in a superior manner, for the accommodation of Passengers,
having had added to her former conveniences an extensive and airy cabin on deck, with state rooms, will
continue to ply between the above ports; and the undersigned hopes, by strict attention to business, to merit a
share of public patronage.
Louis Coxetter.
St. Augustine, Oct 1, 1841

From Florida--the oldest town in the United State -- Tall Julaps, &c. (Baltimore Sun, May 17, 1841)
I was much gratified a few days since by a visit to St. Augustine, the principal town in East Florida, and in
olden days, the chief city and head quarters of the Spaniards on the continent of North America. I landed at
Picolata, on the St. Johns River, a post garrisoned by a company of dragoons, protecting a large Hospital.
Twice a week for the protection of travellers, an escort of ten soldiers leaves this post for St. Augustine, 18
miles distant; availing myself of this privilege, I set out about 8 o'clock of a hot broiling morning on my
perigrination, under charge of a Sergeant and his command: at seven miles, to my surprise, I came across a
post called Fort Searle, garrisoned by a company of Artillery, a few miles further on; the Sergeant was good
enough to show me the place where some officers were shot at, and soldiers and citizens killed; by the Indians
a year since, and further on, pointed out the spot where Capt. Searle, of the U. States Army, (who is now in
your city I am told) was so badly wounded and so miraculously saved from the horrid butchery of the savages;
--five miles distant, tired and fatigued enough, and glad enough too, I assure you, we came in sight of the
venerable and ancient city of St. Augustine, the oldest town in the United States. On inquiring of my guide
where I should put up, he informed me there was two hotels in the town, the
Florida House, having the best
eating and sleeping departments, the older, the City Hotel, being the best drinking establishment, having
always on hand a good supply of ice and the material for mint julap. Here was a predicament, good eating and
sleeping on one side of the question, good drinking on the other, including the ice, and particularly the julap;
fancying all the time in my dry and parched condition, the julaps were like Parkers, Mitchells, Germans, or
Exchange Hotel of your city; what shall I do? I involuntarily exclaimed, I must have all three! Nor could I decide
for myself with any satisfaction, until the Sergeant, in his broken English, fortunately came to my aid and ended
all my doubts, by telling me, "you go to de good eat and de good sleep; by me by, you fast enough, can go to
de good drink, and see de town as you go along." Thanks, my good fellow, you ended the most painful doubts I
have ever been worried with; here is something to get yourself some of de good drink you speak of. Now show
me the way, for except a tolerable large street at the entrance, and which runs to the public square, I could
perceive no way to get out except by narrow alleys, running north, south and west. After arriving at the
House and getting cool, I chartered a negro at a half dollar, to show me the town; first, I must go to the City
Hotel and take one of those good fanciful Baltimore julaps; winding through narrow lanes, dirt and sand, I had
the pleasure at least of obtaining a view of the bar, with its well arranged bottles, and having by the toil of
walking, gotten into a perspiration, whetted up my appetite pretty considerably for de good drink, which on
being ordered was soon forthcoming, and shade of every julap drinker or julap maker forgive me: three sprigs
of mint and three little pieces of ice about as big as pigeon eggs. My friend, (with a sigh) is this your julap. Yes
sare, and him good too, vary noice, him furst rate. A cold shiver of disappointment run through every vain and
paralized my whole speech; after tasting, articulation returned, and the bar keeper had to suffer the just
infliction of my indignation; he murmured forth his replies in broken English, until we neither understood each
other, but the result was, I obtained a little more ice and a better julap; mentally thanking my stars I had put up
at the house of good eating and good sleeping, and vowing if ever I was so happy as to get to Baltimore, I
would, to save myself from such a disappointment and mortification, instantly join a temperance society. From
this place I set out to reconnoitre the town, placing my negro guide about ten feet ahead; he being dressed like
hundreds of others moving in the streets or lanes, I soon lost him and myself, and when he came up and said,
massa, why you no go, I did not know him; to remedy this, however, I got a piece of chalk, made a cross on his
back, and then got along well enough without further trouble. Augustine is, until in my next, so good by. I have
heard of no Indian news of any particular interest.

Death of Charles Downing (The Southern Patriot, November 1, 1841)
We have the melancholy duty of announcing the death of Col. Charles Downing, late Ex-Deligate from this
Territory, which took place at his residence in this city, this morning, after a few days illness. It has been a
severe blew to his bereaved family, and is regretted by the citizens generally. And in him Florida has lost one
of the noblest of her sons.

Capt Coxetter (St. Augustine News, in the Daily Madisonian, January 17, 1842)
William Wilson a seaman was knocked overboard from thee schooner
Stephen & Frances on the night of the
21 inst. by the sudden jibing of the boom whilst that vessel was running befor ethe wind and drowned. Capt.
Coxetter was at the same time knocked overbaord, but fortunately after great exertion rescued.

Washington's Birthday
February 26, 1842
Tuesday last having been the birthday of the Father of his Country, was celebrated in this city by the St.
Augustine City Guards, a uniform corps. The day was beautiful, and the display of colors by the various
shipping, added to the appearance.

Daguerreotype Miniatures April 16, 1842
Alfred A Lansing, professor of Photography, respectfully informs the Ladies and Gentlemen of St. Augustine,
that he will remain a few days in town, for the purpose of taking daguerreotype miniatures. Only one minute's
sitting required; and a warranted likeness with frame, for $5. Any individual taught the art. And one improved
apparatus for sale.  Rooms at the City Hotel.

St. Augustine Ice House, May 21, 1842
Through the enterprize of Messrs. Center, Roddy & Co a spacious Ice House has been erected in this city;
and the schr. Warrior, arrived here on Monday last with a cargo of this cooling luxury. This is an undertaking
which has long been talked of, but never accomplished until now, and we heartily wish Messrs. C. r. & Co.

St. Augustine Ice House
The subscribers having received their stock of ICE for the season, are now ready to accommodate the citizens
of St. Augustine and vicinity with the same. the House will be open for the disposal of Ice from 6 to 8 in the
morning, and from 4 to 6 in the evening.  May 21 Center, Roddy & Co.

June 11, 1842
Indian Signs
A party of three gentlemen from Jacksonville, passed through our city last week and proceeded South, for the
purpose of viewing the lands in that direction, but after arriving at the plantation of the late John J. Bulow, they
discovered recent Indian signs, and concluding that it would not be proper to proceed any further, returned to
this city.

Another party of our citizens who had gone down to the old fort at Matanzas for the purpose of fishing, a few
days since, also discovered recent indian signs in that vicinity.

A party of indians, it is believed, have resided in that section of country for some time, and we would suggest
the propriety of Co. Worth's having them routed and captured.

Add saying Joseph S. Sanchez, Marshall and John M. Fontane Deputy Marshal

Dade Monument (August 15, 1842)
The Dade Monument was dedicated August 15, 1842 in the St. Augustine National Cemetery. Besides the
military the town council, masons, and pastors along with the citizens of St. Augustine participated in the event.

Education Struggles on (April 24th, 1843)
The Rev'd C. Rampon, pastor of the Catholic congregation of St. Augustine, wishes to afford a remedy to the
evils resulting from the want of education and abandonment in which the children of poor parents are brought
up from the absence of a public free school in the place; appeals to a grievous, enlightened and liberal
community to aid him in building a more capricious room than the one he now occupies for the same purpose.
(City chambers) Thus enabling him to offer instruction to a graded number, and enlarging the usefulness of the
poor school already in existence under his care.

The Escape of Andrew Gue (Reward Notice) (Newspaper Article: Escape of Negroes) (2nd Article)
Third Report)
On July 29, 1843 the Negroes composing the crew of the U. S. Transport Sch
Walter M. had left with the
schooners boat, compass and spy glass, bread, pork and water. The boat was later found at Fishe's island but
by night a large whale boat belonging to the pilots was also missing. Besides the crew Andrew Gue, two
slaves belonging to W. H. Williams, one to General Hernandez, one to Jacob Mickler, one to Miss Ashe and
one to Col. J. M. Fontane were also gone. The boat was thought to have gone directly to the Bahamas or were
picked up by a British ship seen "lurking" outside the harbor. The city aldermen and mayor made a
request for
help from the U.S. Treasury

Slave Sale - January 1, 1844
A Marshal's Sale at public auction was held in front of the Court House for 4 slaves: a mulatto man named
Abraham and four negroes Mima, Elias, Sharper, and Rebecca. The sale became unusual because it had an
observer, Rev. Henry Benjamin Whipple, who recorded it in his diary: "A slave auction is to me a melancholy
sight. The pitiful faces of those to be sold, the jokes & witticisms heard on all sides, the indecent remarks
which one is obliged to listen to at all times, make it an unpleasant sight to me. Slaveholders are very averse
to selling their slaves at auction unless they are compelled to do so. Never have I seen more sad and sorrowful
faces than I have seen at these sales. The sundering of family ties, the parting of friends are well calculated to
make one unused to such scenes miserable. ...And then to see the burst of grief that she expresses as she
may bid adieu to all she loves."

Rev Whipple Records his St. Augustine Mardi Gras (January 9, 1844)
This evening we were highly entertained with the masquers who visited us. We had three parties. The two first
were rather common altho' the disguises were very good, but the third was capital. Mr. Marine (Marin) was
dressed as a Spanish brigand with a carbine, pistols, dirks & bowie knife & was really one of the most
hideous figures I ever saw. His sister was dressed as his wife and had a malicious Gipsy look, & her long
black hair streaming over her neck made her look beautiful. She had a guitar strung over her shoulder. A
younger sister was disguised as the daughter and was well dressed and pretty. They spoke very rapidly in
Spanish & the ladies acted their part admirably in stealing handkerchiefs, purses etc., etc. They closed by
singing "the brigands' song" in Spanish. The remainder of the party were dressed one as a Negro, one as an
alderman, wealthy, blustering & drinking, one as a flower girl etc. etc. Every one seems to have entered into
the spirit of the masquing this year and no wonder, the example having been set by the daughters of Genl
Worth and Genl Hernandez, Mrs. Bronson & others who call themselves the elite of the place. Certainly it
appears to me to be a doubtful manner of amusement for an accomplished lady.
. . .
Masquerading is very common here at this season of year. The commence masquing during the Christmas
holidays & continue it until Lent. This custom appears to have grown out of the old Spanish manner of keeping
carnival. These masquers select their own disguises and then visit from house to house acting their several
parts. At times these disguises & the acting is excellent but many times it resembles the fantastics seen on
militia training days. Sometimes the masquers send word to a gentleman that they will dance at his house in
the evening and he provides the entertainment and they take their music with them and after having acted their
several parts they don their disguises & spend the evening in social chit chat. This, as well as all other old
Spanish customs, is fast disappearing and they are giving way to American tastes & American amusements,
much to the benefit of morality."

Fort Marion Work
In 1844 work was completed at Fort Marion on the water battery and hot shot furnace. The furnace was used to
heat iron cannon balls for firing at wooden ships

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