|The Beginning of the Florida Gazette
By March 15, 1821 the editors of the The Florida Gazette were advertising across the south that
they were starting a newspaper in St. Augustine. They promised to produce a paper with the maxim
-- "Open to all parties -- Influenced by none."
William G. D. Worthington receives commission as East Florida Governor (see commission).
William Grafton Delany Worthington (1785-1856) was appointed as acting Governor of East Florida
by Governor Andrew Jackson. Worthington was born in Maryland and was a student at St. Johns
College in Annapolis. He became a lawyer. And in 1807 received an appointment to represent
Baltimore City in the Legislature. He served as a State Senator for Prince Georges County, Maryland
and later become Comptroller of the United States Treasury, He served as a special envoy to
Venezula, and Argentina. He would serve in Florida for two years.
William DuVal receives commission as Federal Judge (see commission)
William Pope DuVal (1784-1854) was a native of Virginia. He started as a frontiersman in Kentucky
then became a lawyer. He served in Indiana as a captain of mounted rangers. He was a representative
of Kentucky in Congress from 1813-1815. He served as judge for one month. William DuVal
became the first territorial Governor of Florida.
James Grant Forbes receives his commission as Marshal (see commission)
President Monroe gave James Grant Forbes a commission as Federal Marshal for Florida. He is,
however, destined for the first Mayor of St. Augustine.
James Grant Forbes makes a report to John Quincy Adams July 14, 1821 (see letter)
Slavery rears its ugly head even as the Spanish leave in their boats.
Ordinance for Mayor and City Council, Public Health, Naturalization, and formation of St.
Johns County and government (July 18, 1821) (See ordinance)
Ordinance establishing a mayor and council for St. Augustine and providing for health and public
order. Printed (Spanish), St. Augustine Florida Gazette, Sept 8; printed (English) Ordinances, by
Major-General Andrew Jackson, Governor of the Provinces of the Floridas, St. Augustine, 1821.
Signed in St. Augustine by W. G. D. Worthington, Secretary, &c. for East-Florida on August 20,
1821. Also what was a major issue and considered an important part of city government became
ordinance #2 by Andrew Jackson --- public health (see ordinance). Andrew Jackson's third
ordinance was an ordinance for naturalization. (see ordinance). See the register below and the story
about Senator David Yulee being a citizen of the United States. With the batch of ordinances was the
ordinance for the formation of St. Johns County and the makeup of its officers. (See ordinance)
From Pensacola (Augusta Chronicle July 26, 1821)
The U. States Shr.Revenge, Lieut. Hammersley, arrived here on Monday evening from Pensacola
and St. Augustine. Left Pensacola on the 1st inst. at which the Gen. Jackson, with his troops has
encamped about 15 miles from the town which it was expected he would assume the command of on
the 10th. The general's family resided in the city, which was daily visited by the general in person.
A ship called the Cora, one of the transports, engaged to carry the Spanish garrison of Pensacola to
Havanah, had been lost, which it was feared might occasion some delay in the surrender of the place.
Col. Forbes, the Marshal, was the only member of the civil department of the government of Florida,
who had arrived at his post at the time of the transfer.
A gentleman who came passenger on the Revenge, from St. Augustine informs us that Governor
Coppinger deserves much credit for his diligence and exertions in accelerating the surrender to the
American troops. Col Butler was about to leave St. Augustine, and the command develved upon
Capt. Bell. of the army, until the arrival of the United States brig Enterprize, in which vessel a person
was expected with authority to name the command of the civil department of the province. A brig,
supposed to be the Enterprise, was seen near St. Augustine when the Revenge came out.
Proclamation (New-York Spectator, July 27, 1821)
by Col. Joseph Coppinger, Gov. of East Florida. -- [Translation.]
To the Inhabitants of East Florida.
On the 10th inst. possession of this Province will be given to Col. Robert Butler, the Commissioner
legally authorised by the U. States. The Spanish officers and troops will therefore evaculate said
territory on the day above mentioned, as the same will be occupied by the officers and troops of the
U. States, agreeably to the treaty concluded at Washington on the 22d Feb. 1819.
The Florida Gazette (Richmond Enquirer, July 31, 1821)
We have been favored with the first number of the "Florida Gazette," recently published at St.
Augustine, by Messrs. Richard W. Edes & Co. being the commencement of an establishment
coexistent with the transfer of the provinces of East and West Florida to the American Government;
the Editors have, we think, judiciously published the Treaty both in Spanish and English, the
Proclamations of Governor Jackson and Col. Coppinger, together with other interesting documents
relative to the newly acquired territory. This paper is very handsomely executed, and makes its
appearance with a respectable advertising support. We wish its proprietors success.
The annexed article which we transcribe from the columns of the Gazette, detailing the ceremony of
the exchange of Flags, may prove interesting to our readers:
Exchange of Flags.
On the 7th inst. His Excellency Gov. Coppinger issued his Proclamation, informing the inhabitants of
this Province, that on the 10th the exchange would take place. On the promulgation of which,
preparations were immediately made for the embarkation of the Spanish troops (excepting a
detachment left for the protection of the Fort) on board a number of small vessels, waiting in the
harbor for the purpose of conveying them on board the transports lying off the Bar. On the morning of
the 9th, the U. S. Schr. Tartar, Capt. Paine, left this port, with instructions to receive the American
troops from the transport ship, at anchor off the harbor. A salute was fired, at the hoisting of the
Spanish Flag on the Fort, on the morning of the 10th---and at 3 o'clock P.M. the American troops,
under the command of Capt. J. R. Bell, arrived before the City --- when the Flags of both nations
were displayed on the same Staff, under a salute from the Fort, which was returned by the U. S. schr
Revenge, just arrived from Pensacola. The American troops having landed in the upper part of the
town, were paraded on a pleasant green; and then marched through the City to the Fort, and formed
a line near the outer gate. The Spanish guards being soon relieved by the Americans---their flag was
immediately withdrawn under a salute from the Fort, and the United States schooner Porpoise off the
bar---which was returned by the schooner Tartar in the harbor. The Spanish troops then marched
out, and on passing the American line, mutual salutes were exchanged, when they shortly after
embarked, chanting a farewell song.---The United States troops having possession of the Fort, the
immense crowd that had assembled to witness the ceremony retired. At the moment the Spanish flag
was lowered, it was announced to the Commissioners, who had assembled at the Governor's House
agreeably to previous arrangements when the Province was surrendered in form, by the Spanish
Commissioner, Gov. Coppenger, to Col. Butler, the Commissioner on the part of the United States.
The weather was uncommonly fine; and nothing transpired to disturb the harmony and good order
which prevailed through the day; at the close of which, a national salute was discharged from the Fort.
George Gibbs, Esquire has been appointed Collector pro. tem. of this Port, by Colonel Buttler
[Florida Gaz. July 11.
The New American Organization (August 4, 1821) (See list, discussion and biographies)
The new organization of the government of St. Augustine done by Worthington including the first
American mayor of St. Augustine - James Grant Forbes.
Citizen's Meeting (Augusta Chronicle, August 9,1821)
A meeting of the citizens of St. Augustine, (F. F) has been held, "with a view of forwarding to Gen.
Jackson a remonstrance against that part of his proclamation which continues the laws and municipal
regulations of the Province, and entrusts their execution to the Spanish "officers." The meeting
adjourned without doing any thing in relation to the subject. The National Intelligencer, puts the
question at rest, by quoting a law of the last session of Congress in relation to territories, which
maintains "the inhabitants in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion," unless some
provision to the contrary had been made by Congress---A principle we think, which the comity of
nations should always recognize.
The fleet, with the Spanish troops on board, which are estimated at nearly five hundred, sailed for
Havana on the 16th ultimo.
Register of Public Officials of East Florida (Territorial Papers)
February 1, 1822
The Civil and Military Government of East Florida, as it was at and since the 20th August 1821, on
which day W. G. D. Worthington, Secretary and Acting Governor, assumed the Administration of the
affairs of that Province up the 1st February 1822. (See Register)
Piracy (Essex Register, September 15, 1821)
Norfolk, Sept. 5
Piracy off our capes
Capt. Sheafe, of the schr. Union, which is at Old Point Comfort, informs, that while he lay at anchor
off Newports News Point on Monday morning last, the sloop Protector, Saxton, from St. Augustine
bound to Richmond, have too near him, and took on board his pilot; she sent to a sloop which was
near her having been plundered of every thing of consequence, two days previous by a piratical schr.
a little to the southward of Cape Henry. The tinder boxes of the Protector had even been taken from
her, and she had been without the means of procuring fire during two days above mentioned. The
description of the piratical vessel was not learned by Capt. Sheaf, but the crew of the Protector stated
that she was a Philadelphia privateer!
From Savannah we learn, that the brig Mary Jean of Bath; Capt. Purrington, has been robbed near
the Point of Matanzas, by a schr. rigged boat manned by 14 men. The pirates took her compass,
medicine chest, all the cabin furniture, and the clothes, watches and money of the Captain and mate.
They then left the vessel, but afterwards returned and robbed the brig of all her provisions except
some beef and bread, all her sails, and colors, cut away her jib, all her new rigging which was unbent,
and cut away some of that which was bent, leaving the brig only one old compass. The men appeared
to be Spaniards, Portuguese and Americans. One of the men was recognized as a Portuguese seaman
by the name of Antonio, who about one year since, left a vessel command by Capt. Foote, of Bath,
by running away from him in Havana.
[On September 21 the New York Gazette and General Advertiser would report that the Schr.
Alexander, from St. Augustine to Havana, was chased by a small armed schr. off the Hole in the
Wall, but having on board 25 soldiers, they were afraid to board her.]
[On October 16, the New-York Spectator reported that the schr. Stamper, bound from St.
Augustine, East Florida, to Havana, S. Linds master, has arrived at Pensacola, and furnishes another
case. On the 22d August, the Pan of Matanzes in sight, the captain states, that they were hailed by a
piratical schr. and commanded to heave to. They were soon boarded by ten men from the schr.
armed with muskets swords and dirks. they ordered the crew below placed a guard over them, and
commenced plundering the cargo, the principal part of which they removed is their own vessel. They
then proceeded to the cabin, and plundered it of every thing valuable, not sparing the trunks of the
passengers, or the quadrant and telescope of the vessel. They demanded all the money and watches
about the persons of the master and the passengers, and threatening them with instant death in case of
refusal to deliver or attempt to conceal anything. There appeared to be about 30 men on board the
pirate, principally Spaniards, one only of whom could speak English. The schooner's sides were
painted black, her stern green, and her bottom lead color.]
Absconded (Augusta Chronicle, September 17, 1821)
From the Steam boat Alatamaha, _____ Davis, patroon, on Friday last, my negro fellow
who has been runaway for the last five years; and was recently apprehended in St. Augustine.
Fifty dollars will be paid to any person, white or black, who will deliver him to the subscriber or give
such information as will ensure his recaption.
Edgefield Court-Hosue, 25th Aug 1821
Late from St. Augustine (Rhode Island Republican, September 19, 1821)
The U. S. schr. Revenge, lieut. comdt. Hammersly, arrived at this port on Thursday, left St. Augustine
on Monday afternoon last. We learn from Liut. H. that it was rather sickly among the soldiery. Lieut.
Washburn of the 4th regt. artillery, died on the 23d ult. of bilious fever. We are indebted to the
politeness of lieut. H. for a St. Augustine paper.
Governor Jackson has, by an ordinance, divided the Floridas, for judicial purposes, into two counties,
to wit: --- All the country between the Perdido and Swaney rivers, and the islands therein, to be
called the county of Escambia. All the ceded territory east of the Suwaney, &c. &c. to be called the
county of St. Johns.
The county courts organized by said ordinance are required to confine the parties strictly to the merits
of their cause, and to cause useless matter, as well as unnecessary ? to be expunged from the
pleadings at the expense of the party introducing the same.
Col. Forbes is appointed Mayor of St. Augustine.
The oath of allegiance has been administered to the civil officers, and such Spaniards as chose to take
it by Mr. Worthington, Secretary and acting Governor of West Florida.
Death of Jean Augustine Penieres Delzors (See Commission as Sub Indian Agent)
Born in Saint-Julien-aux-Bois (Corrèze) May 4, 1767, died at St. Augustine (Florida) September 28,
1821 (some sources say August 21). Born into an old family of the Balearic he was mayor of his
hometown and Member of Corrèze to the French Convention. He demanded the death sentence of
Louis XVI. Secretary of the Convention in 1793 and the following year he asked purifying constituted
authority and even proposed arbitrary measures against 56 of his colleagues in 1797. At the royalist
émeuthe vendéminaire of 13 in 1796, he placed, as deputy , law enforcement Barras. He served on
the Council of the Five Hundred during the Directory, and then he was sent to Perpignan to explain
the benefits to the people of the 18th Brumaire. He then sat on the tribune and to the Legislature in
1807 and during the Hundred Days, in the House, as the member of Corrèze. Banished from France
at the return of Louis XVIII, he moved to the United State. On 14 April 1816, he sailed from
Bordeaux on a US ship, the Narriot, and leaves for America. Located in Florida, there he died of
Died (Washington Gazette, October 29, 1821)
In st. Augustine, after an illness of three days, on the 28th of September, John Auguste Penieres, Esq.
Few individuals have performed so distinguished a part in the events which have grown out of the
French Revolution, as the deceased. In the year 1792 he was elected deputy to the National
Conventions, for the Department of Correge. Although moderate in his conduct and principles, as
was evinced by his steady opposition to the bloody designs of the faction of Robespierre, he
nevertheless joined those who voted for the death of Louis 16th, deeming this a sacrifice essential to
the repose of France. With difficulty he escaped the attachs of the Terrorists, and on the fall of their
power he was urgent in bringing them to condign punishment. He successively filled the stations of
deputy to the National Convention, Member of the Council of Five Hundred Tribunate, and Chamber
of Representatives. Included in the list of prescription for having voted the death of the King, he
effected his escape to the United States, and shortly after was appointed by his countrymen and
companions in exile, to select the land granted them by the government for the cultivation of the vine
and olive. At the time of his death he held the office of Indian Agent, and was engaged in collecting
the materials for forming a Statistical, Botanical and Mineralogical Report to the Government of the
Territory of Florida --- a task which his high attainments rendered him so eminently qualified to
perform. In exile and in adversity the same cheerfulness, benevolence, and scientific ardor which
distinguished him in prosperity, remained unabated, and it is difficult to determine whether we have
most to mourn in his death the companion, the philanthropist, or the sage. After engaging the public
attention for near twenty years in his native country, it was his fate to breathe his last in a remote
province of the United States ---Florida Gazette.
Gov. Coppinger's Protest (Augusta Chronicle, October 25, 1821)
The following is the statement and Protest of Gov. Coppinger, on the subject of the late proceedings
at St. Augustine.
Colonel Joseph Coppinger, of the Spanish army, late Governor of East Florida, and commissioned by
his government to deliver up the province to the United States, in conformity to the treaty concluded
at Washington on the 22d of February, 1819, feeling desirous to gratify the public expectation upon
the fact of his having been forcibly deprived of the government archives, which were under his charge,
together with his private papers, and archive of the Escribano, which last, according to the stipulations
entered into with Col. Robert Butler, Commissioner on the part of the United States, remained
subject to the future and conventional decision of the two cabinets would wish to make known, that
he will not be permitted, by the short stay he intends to make in this city, to lay before the world a
statement of facts in his own justification, supported by proper documents, which should convince all
men of the outrage committed by the immediate orders of the Secretary, acting as governor of St.
Augustine, W. G. D. Worthington and which orders, as he was informed, originate from General
Jackson. this exposition, or manifesto, he designs to make, as soon as he reaches the point for which
he will shortly set out; and in the interim in order that some idea may be formed of the above
mentioned occurrence, he publishes the solemn protest which he made on the spot, hoping that if any
doubts should still be entertained by these unacquainted with the particulars, they would cleared up
and removed when his manifesto shall appear. Charleston Cour.
In the beginning the City Council is appointed by the new American Government. James Grant
Forbes is the first mayor. (See his history of St. Augustine) He is the son of the Rev. James Forbes of
the British period. It will within a year become an elected government. (Extracts of City Council
Minutes). By September 11th the Americans were in trouble - not with the old Spanish holdovers but
with nature --- Yellow Fever. The dreams of many of the newly arrived Americans would end in the
Old Protestant Cemetery (1901 picture) created by the Town Council.
Acting Governor W. G. D. Worthington gives an assessment of East Florida Population
(January 8, 1822) Governor Worthington reported to Secretary of State John Quincy Adams on his
assessment of Spanish holdovers and the Minorcans. (See letter)
Joseph Lee Smith Appointed Judge
Joseph Lee Smith was appointed the first East Florida Superior Court Judge by President James
Monroe. He was the father of General E. Kirby Smith (CSA).
Naturalization Oath (May 20, 1822) (See list of oath takers) 40 people would take the
naturalization oath by May 20, 1822. Francis Fatio as the only Spanish holdover on the City Council
was given the honor of space #1. Moses Levy was on the list. Ireland, France, Great Britain,
Amsterdam, St, Augustine, Spain, Germany and other nations were points of origin for the community
members who were naturalized.
First Year Review of Captain Bell's tenure in East Florida
Captain John R. Bell was appointed military commander in St. Augustine. He was responsible for the
command in all of East Florida. Captain Bell was also the agent to the Seminole Indians. (See letter)
On January 3 1823 Joseph Marion Hernandez takes office as the first delegate to Congress from the
territory of Florida. He serves from 1823 to March 3 1825. He was born in St. Augustine August 4,
1793 and would serve in the territorial house of representatives and become its presiding officer. He
was a brigadier-general in the Florida militia and would be in United States service from 1835 to
1838. His political career would end with a race for the United States Senate as a Whig in 1845. He
moved to Cuba and became a sugar planter. June 8, 1857 he dies and is buried in Matanzas, Cuba.
(Other notes and office holders in the 1820 and early 1830s.)
Many officials are carryovers from the 2nd Spanish period with some being French
Antelme Gay was French and a holdover from the Spanish period. (See Worthington to Adams)
Treaty with the Seminoles
The first treaty with Florida as a territory was negotiated with the Seminoles or Florida tribes.
With the coming of Americans Florida became a slaver's paradise. Lots of records will track their
movement throughout the new territory. (Slaves sold for debts) Slaves would also be returned to
their owners. Lots of slaves would be running away.
Edgar Macon (1801–1829)
was the nephew of James Madison, the son of his sister Sarah Catlett Madison and Thomas Macon. ,
became a lawyer, and was appointed by Monroe to the legislative council of the Florida Territory in
1822. In 1822 he was appointed U.S. district attorney for the Eastern District of Florida and held that
office until 1826. (See full list of Florida Legislative Council in 1822)
In 1824 the old Spanish St. Augustine lighthouse became the first Florida lighthouse. This would guide
the way into St. Augustine's difficult harbor until 1874 when a new lighthouse would be built. Don't
forget to see the second lighthouse designed by Paul Pelz.
The Presbyterian Church was organized on October 31, 1823 with 26 members. The Church started
with a meeting at Elias Wallace's house (there are other stories that would locate the first services in
Judge Floyd's house) on Charlotte street. William W. Blair and Elias B. Gould set aside as first
elders. Rev. Eleazar Lathrop was the first agent of the St. Augustine Presbyterian Society to the
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia. Rev. W. McWhire was the first minister. Later services were
held in the government house under the direction of Rev. Ebenezer Snowden from 1826 to 1828. The
organizing agent was the Presbytery of Georgia but St. Augustine was not part of the Georgia
presbytery. Rev. McWhire only remained in the city for 10 weeks. On January 1, 1825 the
congregation laid the cornerstone for the new church and began to build a church on St. George
Street next to the Buena Vista Hotel between Bridge and St. Francis Streets. The building was built of
coquina. 1828 Ebenezar H. Snowden had been the supply pastor and a Rev. Thomas Alexander was
residing in St. Augustine without charge. The church was completed in 1830 and dedicated in 1834.
In 1835 a Sunday School program was started. In 1842 slaves were admitted to membership but that
was subject to a resolution stipulating that slaves could apply for admission to the church "with
satisfactory evidence that the application is made with the knowledge and permission of the owner or
master." The fairwell service to this church building was held on March 9, 1890.
To see any of the Old Presbyterian Meeting House you would need to go to the Oldest House and
examine the room with the paneling from the Old Meeting House, also stones from the building were
reused in making the columns of the fence for the new church. (List of Pastors) (List of Elders) (List
of Deacons) (Deaths early 1900s)
Bethel Methodist Episcopal (Trinity United Methodist today)
Rev. J. N. Glenn was sent to St. Augustine in 1823 as a Methodist missionary (See diary).
January 20,1825 "Our colored members in this place seem very pious. Indeed I never saw so promising a
society of blacks, so much devoted to God. They hold communion with him and walk in the light of his
countenance." Rev. Noah Laney. "Prejudice and bigotry are on the retreat, and are succeeded by a candid
attention to truth." Methodist Magazine 1825, Vol. VIII. This is the foundation of Trinity United
Methodist Church today. Bethel Methodist Episcopal Church 1832 (Methodist Episcopal – could
have become a Methodist Episcopal South Church in 1844. The church was located on Charlotte St.
at the corner lot of Treasury. Church was built in 1832. Description of church – a rectangular frame
building 14 ft x 30 ft with no definite style of architecture. Incorporated January 13, 1835. In the War
of the Rebellion the whites left the church and it would become African American. It is today's Trinity
Trinity Episcopal Church
The leadership of the Presbyterian and the Episcopal Church would be the establishment. Mayors,
Councilmen, news editors, military leaders and school leaders would be a part of these two churches.
On June 23, 1825 Trinity Episcopal Church is born. (Pictures of Church past and today)The Anglican
Church was here in the form of St. Peter's during the British period but had disappeared during the
2nd Spanish period. The windows of this Church reflect the history of the 19th century.
The church was incorporated by the Legislative Council on July 2, 1823.
The Church was consecrated in 1833 by Bishop Bowen of South Carolina: Be it enacted by the
governor and Legislative Council of the territory of Florida that George Gibbs and Waters Smith,
Church Wardens, and Joseph L. Smith, Thomas H. Penn, Edward R. Gibson, James R. Hanham and
Abraham Eustis, vestrymen, and their successors in office shall be, and they are hereby declared to be
a body corporate, by the name and style of the Church Wardens and Vestrymen of the Episcopal
Church in St. Augustine, called Trinity Church..."
The first baptised child would be Edmund Kirby-Smith the future Confederate general.
On October 2, 1825 St. Augustine experiences a hurricane. The storm destroys one stone building
and sends several ships onto dry land. The market house in the plaza is knocked down. Some of the
orange harvest is lost.
Business in St. Augustine in 1827
This is a list of businesses in 1826 who paid taxes in 1826.
St. Augustine 1827 Tax Roll
To get a better understanding of St. Augustine in the 1820s the tax roll from 1827 survives.
Houses of St. Augustine
Yet this is just the beginning of St. Augustine's territorial history. Florida's territorial and early
statehood history can be viewed at the Ximenez-Fatio House. The Ximenez-Fatio House at 20
Aviles Street while a Second Spanish Period building played a role as a boarding house in the
territorial period. Louisa Fatio played a role in Eugenia Price's novel, Margaret's Story. The Pena
Peck House (home of the Spanish treasurer, Dr. Seth Peck and Dr. John Peck) on St. George Street
offers items from the 1st Spanish through the 19th century. The house is run by one of the oldest civic
organizations in St. Augustine --- the St. Augustine Women's Exchange. The Prince Murat House
located in the site of Old St. Augustine Village may have been the winter home of Ralph Waldo
Emerson when he was a visitor to St. Augustine. The most beautiful home in St. Augustine is started in
the 1830s --- Markland. This is the home of Dr. Andrew Anderson Sr., Clarissa Anderson, and Dr.
Andrew Anderson Jr. It was designed by Thomas Crosby. (more pictures of Markland)
Ralph Waldo Emerson's Poem
There lies thou, little city of the deep,
And always hearest the unceasing sound
By day and night, in summer and in frost,
the roar of waters on thy coral shore,
But, softening southward in thy gentle clime,
Even the rude sea relents to elemency,
Feels the kind ray of thy benigant sun
And pours warm billows, up the beach of shells,
Farewell; and fair befall thee, gentle town!
the prayer of those who thank thee for their life,
The benison of those thy fragrant airs,
And simple hospitality hath blest,
Be to thee ever at the rich perfume,
Of a good name, and pleasant memory!
Ralph Waldo Emerson Encounters Church and a Slave Sale Memo St. Augustine, February
"A fortnight since I attended a meeting of the bible Society. The Treasurer of this institution is Marshal
of the district & by a somewhat unfortunate arrangement had appointed a special meeting of the
Society & a Slave Auction at the same time & place, one being in the Government house & the other
in the adjoining yard. One ear therefore heard the glad tidings of great joy whilst the other was regaled
with 'Going gentlemen, Going!' And almost without changing our position we might aid in sending the
scriptures into Africa or bid for 'four children without the mother who had been kidnapped therefrom.'"
Life in the old city can be viewed in extracts from its newspapers: Florida Herald and Southern
Democrat - 1839, St. Augustine News - 1841, and Ancient City - 1850.
San Sebastian bridge was one of the army projects in 1828. (See Drysdale letter) In 1833
construction started on the seawall. The Army Corps of Engineers between 1833 and 1844 with the
help of slave labor rebuild and extended the original Spanish seawall. The seawall south of the plaza is
still the original seawall built by the Army Corps of Engineers. The seawall was built under the
supervision of Lt. Francis L Dancy, Lieutenant Stephen Tuttle and Lieutenant Henry W. Benham
From Boarding Houses to Hotels
The Florida House was originally built in 1833. Mr. J. H. Rehmer of Ansonia, Connecticut erected
the main building in 1875.
John James Audubon Tours Florida
November 20 John James Audubon leaves St. Augustine for a six month tour of the east coast of
Florida and the Florida Keys.
Slaves and the Seminoles (from Lights and Shadows A Long Episcopate by Henry
"Claims were made against the Seminoles for the value of runaway slaves. Governor Duval,
Superintendent of Indian Affairs, wrote to Agent Humphreys: 'If you believe the Indian has an
equitable claim to the slave, you are directed not to surrender the slave except by the order of the
Hon. Judge Smith of the United States Court, and you will defend the right of the Indian if you believe
that he as right on his side.'
The Indian Bureau at Washington directed the agent to capture and deliver two slaves, the property
of a Mrs. Cook. The case was carried before the United States Judge Smith, the father of General
Kirby Smith, who decided against the white claimant; and Judge Smith wrote to the agent that in no
case should a negro be delivered up until proofs had been made and title established by judicial
authority. Colonel Brooke of the United States Army advised the agent not to deliver negroes to any
white man until their claims were clear and satisfactory. Many of these negroes had intermarried with
the Seminoles, and as slavery recognized the descent from the mother, these claims struck at the
foundation of all that is dear in Indian family life. It was the capture of his wife that made Osceola the
bitter enemy of the white man.
The territorial legislature passed a law that any Indian found outside the limits of his reservation should
be whipped thirty-nine lashes on the bare back. Collisions and difficulties grew out of the disputed
ownership of cattle, all losses were charged to the Indians, and demands made for indemnity."
Go to Territorial Page 2
|American Territorial Period
E pluribus unum
1821 - 1832
ab urbe condita - 256 to 267
Territorial Delegate to Congress (1821-1823)
Library of Congress
|John James Audubon
|Audubon - Greenshank
Military Governor of Florida
March 10, 1821 to December 31, 1821
|William Pope Duval
1st Territorial Governor of Florida
April 17, 1822 - April 24, 1834
2nd Territorial Governor
April 24, 1834 - March 16, 1836
|Richard Keith Call
2nd Delegate to U. S. Congress (1823-1825)
3rd Territorial Governor
March 16, 1836 - December 2, 1839
5th Territorial Governor
March 19, 1841 - August 11, 1844
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|St. Augustine of Hippo
|Map of Florida
Charles Blacker Vignoles
with selections from Observations on the Floridas
|Old 1st Presbyterian
St. George Street.