Military order, Dec 1, 1865
"All negroes when meeting white people to give them inside of street or walk."

Pastor Father Aubril (St. Augustine Examiner (Sept. 8, 1866)
We are happy to welcome back to our City, our esteemed Pastor--Father Aubril, who has been absent from his flock
for the last four months. His health has been much improved during his absence. Father Aubril has brought with him
eight Sisters of Charity some of whom will remain here as teachers...

Rebuilding (St. Augustine Examiner (Sept 8, 1866)
We are happy to see men employed, by the Government, in getting out piles and lumber, to repair our dilapidated
Wharf. "Strike while the iron is hot!" The St. Sebastian Bridge was destroyed, during the war, as a Military necessity.
We hope this Bridge will be rebuilt are long, as it is a public benefit.

7th Regiment
The recruits of the 7th Regt. who suffered so much from cholera on Tybee Island, were brought up to the city on
Monday and are now encamped north of the fort. They are a young and fine looking set of men, although rather run
down by the hardships which they have gone through with.

Presidential Pardons
Starting after the Civil War people began to ask for pardons from the  President of the United States. This included
Charles Hopkins, Douglas Dummitt, and David Durham.

Mayors of the Reconstruction Period
Mayors of the Reconstruction period include: Samuel Buffington, Venacio Sanchez, Ramon Canova, Paul Arnau,
George Burt, William W. Van Ness, Frank H. Plamer, T. T. Russell, Emanuel Medicies, William Watkins T. A.
Pacetti, Captain Thomas F. House, R. S. Relf, and George S. Greeno.

Freedmen Bureau School Continues
Predating the founding of the St. Johns Public School system African-Americans had the advantage of the Freedmen's
Bureau School. The funding for the school was somewhat murky. It relied on rent being paid for use of a building that
covered the support of a teacher. In 1866 two schools were reported with Bootts and Harris as teachers listing 220
students (with 67 students being over 16 years of age.In 1867 for C. Smith and Lizzie Smith the school had 98
students For Mrs. Williams in 1867 and Wakeena 1 school was reported as being supported by the freedmen, one
school was reported as being sustained in part by freedmen with one building being owned by the freedman. The
school had 72 students with 55 in Sunday School. The teachers also founded a temperance society that remained in
existence for years to come. (I
ndependent Lincoln Temperance Society)

For a Full newspaper treatment of this time period see - St Augustine News 1866-1867

Getting to St. Augustine
St. Augustine November 24, 1866
From the unsettled state of affairs in Florida, the past four or five years an impression seems to prevail at the North,
that our City is almost inaccessible, or reached with many difficulties. This is not the case. All a traveller has to do is to
embark for Savannah and then take the fine Steamer
Dictator, the Sylvan Shore, or the Lizzie Baker to Picolata, on
the St. John's River, where stages are always in waiting for the arrival of the boat, and to take passengers to this City.
The distances but eighteen miles, with a fine road, which is overcome with ease in three hours. From the number of
strangers now in town we are becoming more generally known.

Other Freedmen Bureau Activities
Dr. N. D. Benedict (April 7, 1815 - April 30, 1871) who owned the hotel in Magnolia Springs leased the hotel to the
Freedmen's Bureau after the Civil War for a State Hospital and Orphanage. He was active as a medical doctor in St.
Augustine and was a prominent member of the Presbyterian Church and in the establishment of the Peabody School in
St. Augustine (Public School #1). He was the first chairman of the St. Johns County Board of Education.

Lighthouse Relit - The Charleston Daily News,  May 14, 1867
Coast of Florida – St. Augustine Lighthouse.—Notice is hereby given that on and after June 1, 1867, the light at St.
Augustine, Florida, will be re-exhibited.

The light is on the north end of Anastasia Island, south side of entrance to St. Augustine.

The focal plane is 57 feet and 6 inches from base of tower, and 71 feet above sea level, and should be seen at a
distance of 13 nautical miles.

The lens is of the 4th order, white, fixed, varied by flashes, with intervals of 20 seconds, and illuminating an arc of 360

The tower is white, surmounted by a lantern painted black.

The keeper’s dwelling, in front of the tower, seaward, is two stories high, and painted white.

Latitude, north 29 50 48; longitude, 81 19 11 west.

By order. W. B. Shubrick, Chairman.
Treasury Department, Office Lighthouse Board, Washington, D C, May 6, 1867.

Court in St. Augustine From Charleston Daily News, June 18, 1867
From St. Augustine – We learn from gentlemen who left St. Augustine on Sunday last, that the town was full of people
from all parts of Florida and from other States, who were in attendance of the United States District Court, Judge
Frazier presiding, The Court was opened on Monday, June 3d, a Grand Jury empanelled, of which
Buckingham Smith,
Esq., is foreman, the Judge delivered his charge to the Jury, and a colored gentleman was sworn to the Jury, and a
colored gentleman was sworn in as bailiff, to take charge of the Jury; it so happening that there was no white man
around who felt like taking the awful  oath required. ---
Fernandina Courier.

End of an Era (From Old St. Augustine A Story of Three Centuries by Chas B. Reynolds)
Since the early territorial days one of the guns at Fort Marion would sound a blank charge as a vessel arrives as a
signal for the vessel to anchor. The health officer of the port would then inspect the ship. In 1867 the schooner
John T. Sprague
built in St. Augustine and launched from the sea-wall, named after the military commander of Florida
had been on her maiden voyage. The captain, who did not know about the quarantine regulations and thinking that the
one shot was a salute to the new ship found that the second shot was a live cannon ball. He lowered sail and let go the

St. Augustine becomes part of the world
On Friday, December 27, 1867 a cable was successfully laid across the St. John's River and St. Augustine had a
telegraph connection with the world.

St Mary's Academy
The school of the Sisters of Mercy was still active after the Civil War. It was however an exclusive organization for
white children.

In September of 1866 the Academy reopened. Board and Tuition was $200.00 payable half yearly. An additional
6.00 was requested for pocket money. Extra charges for the academic year were payable in advance. French, Spanish
and German at $30.00 each. Drawing $30, Piano and use of Instrument, $60.00, Vocal Music, $80.00, Plain and
ornamental needle work were taught to the pupils boarding at the Academy free of charge. Pupils entering after the
commencement of session, were charged only such portion of it has may remain. The Academic year closed by an
Examination and Distribution of Premiums, where Parents and Guardians were expected to be present. All letters
received and sent were subject to the inspection of the Superior.

In May 1867 they gave a recital.
Nothing can be pleasanter to any one who has anything of the human about him, than to see children innocent and
cheerful enjoying the festivities of the breaking up of  a school. The speeches and dialogues recited. The songs sung
and the pieces of music excellent played, showed to the minds of the most prejudiced that they Sisters have done all
that any could do to train the minds of those entrusted to their charge in a way that besides making them graceful and
accomplished also makes them intellectual. The joy of the children and the anxious looks of the parents as each child
stepped forward to take its part strongly contrasted and showed to a stranger that St. Augustine society was bound by
the strongest ties, namely domestic happiness.

There was but one thing to mar the pleasant occasion and that was the absence of our former beloved Father Aubriel,
who would have so much delighted in the joyous scene.

Board and tuition was $200. They had additional classes in French, Spanish, and German. Students could also learn to
draw or play the piano.

Cobb House
The mansion known as the "Cobb House" recently bought by Mr. Gilbert of New York; but occupied, during the war
as a Hospital has been so changed, by skillful hands that, as we passed by there, the other day we scarcely recognized
it. It is now perhaps the handsomest place, in the County.

Military Rule
While the existence of Military rule is unpleasant to any race of people. Still much is done to render it palatable to the
people and entitle it to their respect when those in command desire to do only what is just and good for the citizens.
Col Martin the Commandant of this Post has always done this and when by the laws of Congress he was compelled to
appoint a Mayor in place of Mr. Arnau resigned. He did not select one who was a stranger amongst us. But took one
who for twenty-five years has been allied and identified with every city improvement or movement. Mr. Burt, the
appointee, we are sure will fill the place to the entire satisfaction of all. No better appointment could have been made.

Sisters of St. Joseph
In 1868 The Sisters of St. Joseph came from France to teach the newly freed slaves. This was done at the invitation of
Augustin Verot who would become St. Augustine's first bishop. There were eight sisters: Marie Sidonie Rascle,
superior, Marie Julie Roussel, Josephine Deleage, Saint Pierre Bories, Clemence Freycenon, Marie-Joseph Cortial,
Marie Celenie Joubert, and Julie Clotilde Arsac. They originally stayed at the convent of the Sisters of Mary
before being moved to Hospital Street. Later they were moved to the former residence of the Christian Brothers on
South Charlotte Street. In the beginning the sisters only knew French.

Freedmen Bureau Schools Had Some Cost
A night school for Freedmen was opened on St. George Street at Samuel Polite's place. (See Officer's Inquiry)
military board was also set up to determine the rental amount for the St. Augustine school (day). The next day the
rent was determined for the day school on Charlotte Street owned by Misses Mather and Perrit.

1st Methodist Episcopal Church (South) Hastings formed
The Methodist Episcopal South congregation would spend years meeting in the homes of its congregation. It existed
before the city of Hastings existed. Members were from the Carterville Cowpen Branch section which later became
Hastings. The church was incorporated in 1935. From 1915 to 1917 they worshiped in an empty building. The building
was erected in 1917 at 200 East Lattin . It was a rectangular gray stone building of Gothic architecture with a
cornerstone, 19 stained glass windows. The first settled pastor was Rev. E. R. Calhoun from 1916-1918. The earliest
known circuit rider was Rev. S. W. Walker from 1896-1898. In 1938 the pastor was Rev. H. M. Ware. The building
was dedicated on September 17, 1933. One auxiliary organization of the church was the Golden Cross. This church is
now Christ United Methodist Church.

Beginning of St. Johns County Public Schools
The end of the Civil War marks the beginning of the Public Schools in St. Johns County. (Florida 1869 constitution for
free schools and 1869 enabling law) The first school superintendent was Dr. Oliver Bronson, from a wealthy family in
New York City.  The school system began with money from the
Peabody Foundation for the white schools and the
Freedmen's Bureau for the African-American. Public School #2 (the Freedmen's Bureau school was staffed by
northern teachers until 1876.)
The first African-American teacher graduated as a student from Public School #2.
(Names of teachers and letters about school , Public School #2)

The Peabody fund was run by Barnas Sears. His relationship with Dr. Bronson was so good that when the State of
Florida refused to honor its Reconstruction Bonds the Peabody Fund which had invested  in them shut funding down
for the state of Florida except St. Augustine.
(For St. Augustine Peabody School Songs)

See Circular #3 for St. Johns County Board requirements

Oct 23, 1869 St. Augustine Examiner
"We liked to have forgotten our schools. For this purpose let us squint a little to the southward of the Plaza. Do you
see that large square stone building, two stories, in the middle of a large lot and which you can hit with a stone from
here. That is the
Peabody School House. Do you recognise the old City Hall and Court House with its elegant new
fence, its back addition and its generally improved appearance. Strain your eyes seaward Northeastwardly and you
will see a vessel almost in sight. That vessel contains a thorough set of school furniture and outfit of the most approved
plans. Selected at the North by one of the Trustees, Dr. Bronson. About  the time of its arrival we are informed will
also arrive from the same place on of the most thorough and accomplished teachers and the school will then be
opened; say November 1st next. a free school for White

Turn to the Westward and you see "
St. Mary's Academy for young ladies, situated within the Convent grounds. This
institution is under the charge of the Sisters; three of whom thoroughly competent and accomplished teachers, have
recently arrived from the North. Attached to which is a Free School for young misses.

In the grounds attached to the Cathedral, is an admirable school for boys, under the charge also, of able and
experienced teachers.

The whole under the supervision of that thorough scholar and gentleman Rev. Father Clavurel.

A little further to the West and North, is the new Freedman's School; a fine building, capacious, well arranged,
comfortably and creditably finished and furnished. An ornament to this city and a well spring of knowledge for our
colored youth. This will also shortly be opened by competent teachers. (Note: the building was authorized on May 26,
1869 with construction approved on July 15, 1869. The building cost 4,000.00. This was for its time the highest priced
school in Florida.)

Having frequently spoke before of the admirable school of Dr. Simons, in the parish School house of the Episcopal
Church, we were well nigh forgetting again to say that no better opportunity for securing a thorough English and
Classical Education can be presented elsewhere."

School #1 was located on Hospital Street and by this time consisted of a stone building that was two stories tall. D.
Waterbury was the superintendent and Fatio Dunham was the secretary. The school opened in November 8,1869. In
the beginning because of the shortage of tax funding contributions were made by St. Augustine's leading citizens. The
first paid teachers were: Mr. Waterbury, Mr. Hughes, Mrs. Watkins, Mr. Wright (Fruit Cove Public School #3), Mr.
Oliveras, and Miss Mather (

The first school report of
Dr. Bronson was in 1870. To read the St. Johns County portion.

In 1872 the Superintendent Oliver Bronson from St. Augustine reported that there were 6 schools in the county with
337 students. The total cost for the school system was 4,183.00 dollars. His visionary report provided a foundation for
the educational system well into the 20th century.  However, the battle for a free public school system from religious
influence was not maintained for long. The school system would eventually begin paying the salaries of the nuns
teaching parochial students.  This is his
report of the St. Johns County School system from the 1870-1871 school year.
1872-1873 Report)

The Society of St Benedict the Moor and the St. Augustine Benevolent Society for Catholics
Right Rev Bishop Verot gave out last Sunday that there would be a meeting of the coloured men of St Augustine with a
view of reorganizing the Society of St Benedict which existed among them, before and during the war, and had
afterwards, like so many other things ceased to be as the new order of things inaugurated after the war. We understand
that there was a good number of men who answered the call, ad there is a prospect of a good many more coming on
Sunday next for the final organization of the Society .....We wish St. Benedict Society and all upright and industrious
coloured people full success and constant God-Speed.

A Society also existed also among the white male population which was suspended during the war. We learned with
pleasure that it had been reorganized and was now in full working order under the name of St. Augustine Benevolent
Society. May it, become the instrument of valuable good done among the working classes of our City to assist them
when living, when dying, and after death.

Freedmen's Bureau
In 1867 the Freedmen's Bureau for the state was located in St. Augustine with Col Sprague. The location of St.
Augustine while Col Sprague's choice could not remain because of the lack of a telegraph.

First African-American Voter Election
In 1869 the City had its first election in which African-American males could vote. It would have a much longer wait
for all females (1920).  (
Results of the 1881 St. Augustine Municipal Election)

St. Augustine in 1869 (A guide-book of Florida and the South by Daniel Garrison Brinton)
Florida House (dear and poor,) Magnolia House, fine piazza (grounds recently fitted up.) About $4.00 per
day, slight reduction by the month.

Billiard Saloon, at Delot's Restaurant.

Post Office on the Plaza, mail tri-weekly. Telegraph office near the market house on the Plaza.

St. Augustine Examiner, weekly. Reading Room at the editor's office, 25 cents a week.

Drug Store: Dr. J. P. Mackay.

Military Music: On the Plaza every other night.

Churches :
Roman Catholic, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Methodist chapel opposite the Magnolia House, Colored Baptist.

Bathing-House: on Bay Street, white flag for ladies, red flag for gentlemen, on alternate days. Season ticket $5.00.

Local Histories:
Fairbanks, The Spaniards in Florida, (1868, the best, published by Columbus Drew, Jacksonville,
Fla.); Sewall,
Sketches of St. Augustine 1867, (illustrated); St. Augustine, Florida, by an English visitor, (1869, by
Mrs. Yelverton; inaccurate).

St. Augustine (population 1,200 white, 600 black).

Hotel St. Augustine and the Beginning of the Hotel Industry
Hotel St. Augustine was built in 1869 by a partnership of Captain E. E. Vaill, F. H. Palmer, and Dr. Andrew
Anderson. T. P House was the architect and builder. The hotel had gaslights, was 200 feet long, three stories high, and
contained 80 rooms (140 rooms were added in 1875).

In 1884 in
Chapin's Hand Book of St. Augustine by Elias Nason included the following description of the hotel:
southerly front of 200 feet upon the Plaza and 160 feet on the Bay with wide plazas and hanging balconies from each
story overlooking the City, Bay, and Atlantic Ocean. The Dining-Room, Parlors, Billiard-Room, and many of the
Sleeping Rooms are elegantly frescoed. It is lighted with gas and provided with water conveniences, electric bells. The
dining hall is capable of seating over 300 guests, and the table will be furnished with all the luxuries of the Northern
Market. By 1885 the St. Augustine Hotel had 300 rooms that rented for $4 per day.

Captain Vaill (a sea captain from Milton, Conn.) was the sole owner of the Hotel St. Augustine in 1887 when the fire
that also destroyed the Cathedral destroyed it. Unfortunately, Captain Vaill had canceled the insurance on the hotel
because he thought the rates were too high.

Lincolnville and New St. Augustine
The end of the Civil War also starts the growth of two new communities: Lincolnville and New St. Augustine. New St.
Augustine is today's west St. Augustine. For a significant amount of time it was an independent city.

Bishop Augustin Verot
In 1870 Augustin Verot would become the first Bishop of St. Augustine (1870-1876). Pope Pius IX had elevated St.
Augustine to the dignity of an episcopal see. St. Augustine and St. Johns County were growing in the 1870s (
1870 - remember former slaves are now on the role).

Buckingham Smith (biography with links to written works)
January 6, 1871
Buckingham Smith died in New York. He was found earlier on the street and it was supposed he was
drunk. He was taken to the Fifteenth Precinct where they realized that he was ill and moved to Bellevue Hospital. He
was a State Senator in Florida, Judge in the Internal Revenue Court., 1855 he was Secretary of Legation to the
Spanish Embassy and then became the Charge d'Affaires to Mexico. He translated many of the early Spanish records
about St. Augustine and is buried in the Huguenot Cemetery. He left his fortune for the use of the black people of St.
Augustine and their successors in all time to come.
Dr. Oliver Bronson of St. Augustine was his executor. Dr. Bronson
formed  The Buckingham Smith Benevolent Association. Dr. Bronson donated a house to the organization. The income
from Mr. Smith's estate was devoted to the maintenance of the home.

The women formed a board of lady managers. Miss Sarah Mather, President, Miss Humphreys and Benet and Mrs.
John Sprague, Vice Presidents, Miss Rebecca Perit Treasurer, Miss Margaret Worth, Secretary. The Association
officers were Oliver Bronson, President,
General John T. Sprague and Oliver Bronson, Jr., Vice Presidents, Dr.
Andrew Anderson, Physician and Secretary, and Mr. James W. Allen, Treasurer. The association is still active today.
The home was opened on December 8, 1873.

Destruction of the lunette
On the corner of Tolomato and King Streets a lunette was constructed of coquina stone for the old city wall. It was
between twelve to fifteen feet high. It was destroyed in 1871 as a "city improvement." During the War of Rebellion part
of the ditch of the
Cubo Line was filled by the fort. Soon the only thing left would be left would be the City Gates and
even the gate was under attack.

William Van Dyke
In 1872 William Van Dyke would be  appointed  as County Commissioner. He is St. Johns County's first African-
American official. He also served as a St. Augustine's Marshall from 1872-1874 and 1877-1878.

Confederate Civil War Monument
Also in 1872 St. Augustine erected through the Daughters of the Confederacy what would become the oldest
Confederate Civil War Monument in Florida. This monument was not originally on the plaza but was located a short
distance away on St. George Street. The monument is in memory of the 46 Confederate soldiers from St. Augustine
that died during the war. Anna Dummett was the person responsible for the erection of the statue. The Daughters of the
Confederacy Chapter in St. Augustine is called the Anna Dummett chapter. The quote on the monument is the last
words of Stonewall Jackson "Let us pass over the river, and rest under the shade of the trees." The monument is 25
feet high.

Beginnings of the Oldest Drug Store
In 1872 Bartonia Genovar and J. D. Lopez opened a second drug store in St. Augustine at the site of the Genovar
grain house. Jerome Lopez was the clerk. The grain house later became the St. Augustine Yacht Club House. It was at
the western foot of what is now the Bridge of Lions. T. W. Speissegger, a druggist, came from Charleston, S. C. to
Mill Creek in the summer of 1868. He went to Picolata where he had an orange grove and would teach school. In
1875 he bought out the drug store of Genovar and Lopez. The firm was registered on August 1, 1875 in the Centennial
Autographic Register. The firm was originally known as T. W. Speissegger and Sons. In 1880 it was moved to the
corner of Bay and Hamblen Streets where it burned in the 1887 fire. Its new (and final) location was in a building at the
corner of Orange and Cordova Streets which was built in 1886.

H. W. Chatfield Post and John A. Logan GAR
The white Union Veterans formed the H. W. Chatfield Post No. 11 (early officers) . The original rooster consisted of
75 members.
John A. Logan was the African-American Post.  A. E. Pappy, Wm Van Dyke, Cato Bailey, William
Huling, Jacob Steward, John Robinson, Nathanel Jackson, Sam Osborne, Abram Lancaster, David Twine, and
Thomas Hernandez were some of the Logan members.

For Sale, Lands in St. John's (The Charleston Daily News, April 18, 1872)
For Sale, Lands in St. John's County, Florida, six or seven miles from St. Augustine, available for the cultivation of
Oranges and other fruits, Rice and Vegetables, known as the "Arqua" Tract, formerly the property of John Magee,
now sold as part of his Estate, containing (337) three hundred and thirty-seven acres, more or less, situate, lying and
being in St. John's County, Township six, (6,) Range (29), twenty-nine. Sections 49, 50, 90, 92 and 93, adjoining the
lands belonging to the estate of A. Alverez, called Cascola.

The above described Lands will be sold at Public Auction, in the City of Charleston, S. C., on the 23 day of April,
under power given to his Executors by Will of John Magee, recorded in the office of the Probate Judge at Charleston,
South Carolina.

Terms of sale cash.
P. West,
Surviving Executor.

St. Paul AME
On June 4, 1873 St. Paul AME was founded (picture). This church started in a wooden frame building on the edge of
marsh land on Maria Sanchez Creek (Washington and Lincoln St) In 1888 they were in a stone church on School
Street until 1903 when that building was razed. Then they were at the Ladies Benevolent Hall on St. Francis Street until
the red, square brick venue building with a tower, stained glass windows and 0piep organ was erected in 1904 and
dedicated in 1905. The first pastor was Rev. Morgan from 1875-1878. !904 the pastor was Rev. C. H. Boger. In
1937 the pastor was Rev. L. M. Moore who was a graduate of Morris Brown College in Atlanta and Edward Waters
College in Jacksonville.

How to Get to St. Augustine in 1873
Charleston - "New York and Charleston Steamship Line," Thence from rail to Savannah

Savannah -  "Murray's Line," "Atlantic Coast Mail Steamship Co's," "Empire Line," and "Black Star Line." Thence to

Jacksonville and Tocoi by Steamers "
Lizzie Baker" and "Nick King" --- inside route, or "Dictator" and "City Point,"
outside route. From Tocoi to St. Augustine by Rail.

Via Fernandina - "Florida and Gulf Steamship Line." Thence Via Jacksonville and Tocoi,

By Rail from New York. -- Via "Atlantic Coast Line" -- to Charleston. Thence by Savannah and Charleston Railroad
to Savannah; or, from Richmond -- Via "Upper Route" -- to Savannah. Thence by "Atlantic and Gulf Railroad" to

From Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore, Steamers also run to Savannah

Saint Ambrose Catholic Church
In Elkton in 1874 a congregation was organized with assistance from the Cathedral parish in St. Augustine. From 1874
- 1906 the congregation worshiped in a church on the present site. In 1906 the current church was built. From 1874-
1878 the church was a mission of the Cathedral and served by a priest from the Cathedral. Before 1874 the priest had
come to the homes of various individuals and had used a log cabin house for Mass and other services. The 1906
building was a rectangular frame building painted white in Gothic style. It had a cornerstone, bell, and reed organ. The
first priest was Father Felix Ghione from 1872-1878. He came from France. In 1935 the priest was Father Alfred
McDonald a graduate of St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore, Maryland. (
Marriages by Husband) (Marriages by Wife)
Marriages by wife - 1935 forward) (Marriages by husband - 1935 forward) (Deaths 1919-1965)

Trinity Episcopal Gets a New Rector
Eleazer Root, the Wisconsin educator and founder of Carrol University and Superintendent of Education for Wisconsin
moved to St. Augustine for his health. He served as rector through the Reconstruction period from 1874 -1884. He
retired from Trinity as rector emeritus and died in 1887.

First Baptist Church
In 1874 the First Baptist Church was started (picture) through the efforts of Reverend Ivory Barnes and Mrs. Hamie
Williams-Jordan. The African American church was located on 81 St. Francis Street.(Today 89 St. Francis St.)  It
was part of the National Baptist Convention of the United States. It was incorporated on October 25, 1893. From
1874 through 1915 the members met in a wooden structure that was destroyed by fire on June 15, 1915. For almost a
year they met in a room on the second floor over L. O. Davis grocery store on Washington Street. In January 1, 1916
the first service was held in the new building. The new church was a square cream brick structure with a basement and
tower. It has a cornerstone, 16 glass windows, bell, pipe organ, and one oil painting. The first pastor was Reverend
Ivory barns who served from 1874-1889. In 1904 Rev. C. S. Daniels was pastor. In 1933 the clergyman was Rev. L.
N. Anderson who had attended Central City College in Macon Georgia and Benedict College in Columbia, S. C.
From 1874 they had a Woman's Home Missionary Society which was the oldest society in the church.

Bethel Methodist Episcopal Church
The church was located on highway 47, 2 miles from Switzerland PO St. Johns County.  It was constituted 1874.
Services in small shack which was on the Masonic Hall site until 1882 when it was destroyed by storm, then private
homes until 1884, when building with tower erected on wooden blocks 2 ½ feet high, tower destroyed by wind 1885,
repaired with tower omitted, and services until present building a small rectangular, white building with tower and bell
erected in 1915 first services Oct, remodeled 1915, additions 1935. Has a Sunday School.  First settled pastor was
Rev. John B. Wilson, 1874-1880. Education unknown. The present pastor, Rev. Loyal  H. McLendow 1937 lives at
1227 West 21st St, Jacksonville, Florida; Chaflin University, Orangebury, South Carolina.

Sisters of St. Joseph Hold a Picnic (St. Augustine Examiner)
In May of 1874 a picnic was held for their African American students and parents. The paper wrote about it: "The
discipline and order, with which the whole affair was conducted, reflected credit upon those who have had the
intellectual and moral training of this School.

The parents of the children were in attendance, and deported themselves with such grateful deference, as is in honor
due to those who have substantially, and without reward, labored for the enlightenment of the rising generations of this
city, 'without regard to color or previous condition.'

The Colored population of this City are largely Catholic, and ever since the war have had the benefit of liberal
educational opportunity which has advanced them in a standard of Citizenship above almost any other city in the South.

In giving justice where it properly belongs we must say, that the credit for the advancement of this particular class of
our community belongs to Catholic influence directed under the auspices of the Right Rev. Bishop Verot.

Mount Pleasant African Methodist Episcopal Church
This church was organized in Fruit Grove in March of 1875. The first building was 1/2 mile west of the present location
until destroyed by fire in 1934. Then they met in a neighbor's house until 1937. In 1937 the Julington Creek Turpentine
Camp let them use a house rent free. In 1938 they constructed a gray rectangular concrete block building. The first
pastor was Rev. Allen Dean in 1875. In 1938 the pastor was Rev. Clyde J. Jessie who received his education at
Edward Waters College in Jacksonville, Florida.

Plains Indians stay at Fort Marion
On May 21, 1875 the first group of Plains Indians were held at Fort Marion. They consisted of Kiowa, Comanches,
Cheyenne and one Caddo. There were 62 prisoners that survived. The oldest one was 59, the youngest
16, and 11 were teenagers. Black Horse of the Comanche; Gray Beard (killed on the way), Minimic, Heap of Birds,
and Medicine Water of the Cheyenne; Lone Wolf, Woman's Heart, and White Horse of the Kiowa were the Indian
leaders. For a short play about the Cheyenne
(Tears in the Sand).

Lt. Richard H. Pratt (at the time a second lieutenant in the 10th Cavalry (USCT). escorted the Indians to Florida. For
the three years the Indians were held at the Fort Pratt found teachers including local Sarah Mathers for vocational skills
arithmetic, reading, history, and English. Some of the former prisoners went to the
Hampton Institution in Virginia. Pratt
would be the founder of the
Carlisle Indian Training School in Pennsylvania in 1880.

Bishop Henry Whipple (former rector of Trinity Episcopal)  of Minnesota, who arrived to spend the winter in St.
Augustine, became a regular visitor to the fort and Pratt welcomed his presence and support. Nevertheless, he
considered Whipple’s contribution to be aiding, not driving, his “system of instruction.” Convinced his own style of
management was very different from that practiced by the Bishop, he self-assuredly explained to General Sheridan,
“Bishop Whipple has given much good help and is converted to Army management of the Indians.”  Bishop Whipple
preached Sunday's at the Fort.

Two of the prisoners were artists and drew pictures of their captivity and their life on the plains. One artist was Zotom

(drawing from Fort Marion after arriving)
, a Kiowa, (Kiowa drawings) the others Cheyenne: Squint Eyes
(Tichkematse),Howling Wolf
(drawing), Making Medicine (drawing) and Cohoe (Lame Man)(ledger drawing of
Cohoe's) (second ledger drawing). This is a partial list of the Native American captives and their "crimes" (Partial list of
Plains Indians staying at Fort Marion.) (picture)

Another famous prisoner was David Pendleton Oakerhater (Making Medicine). He was not only one of the leading
artist, he was converted to the Episcopalian Church under the sponsorship of Ohio former congressman George
Pendleton who wintered in St. Augustine. He had attended church in town which would have probably been Trinity
Episcopal. On Sunday, October 6, 1878, a little more than six months after Oakerhater's release from Fort Marion,
Making Medicine and the other three Indian students received Christian Baptism. The service was held at Grace
Church in Syracuse, New York. Bishop Frederic D. Huntington conducted the services. David Pendleton Oakerhater
became a Saint of the Episcopal church. His feast day is September 1.

Later Sarah Mather would travel to the Dakotas and encourage new students for the Carlisle School.  She and Miss
Semple (another of the former Freedmen Bureau's teachers at St. Augustine) would become teachers during the set-up
at Carlisle.
(For the story of life at Carlisle, Roman Nose, and Sarah Mather on the Plains)

Indian Dick (Florida Daily Times April 14, 1882)
"Indian Dick" is a pure blooded African recently arrived in this city from St. Augustine, where he has been doing duty
as a porter at the
Florida House. Indian Dick was captured when he was a child by a party of Kiowa Indians, with
whom he grew up. During the Indian troubles of 1875-76 a large party of captured Kiowa, Cheyenne, Arapaho and
Comanche braves were sent to St. Augustine for confinement, and among them came Indian Dick. Dick remained in
confinement at Fort Marion but a few weeks. He was released, and became at once an industrious citizen. He speaks
not only very good English, but is fluent in the tongues of the Kiowa, Comanche and Cheyenne Indians. (Note: this
story appears in both Plains Indian and Apache sections. However, because this story is dated before the Apache
confinement it would appear that this story properly belongs in this section. I do not think that it is probable that there
were two Indian Dick captives.)

Hotels of St. Augustine
The grand hotel of this period was the St. Augustine Hotel. The hotel bordered on the plaza. E. E. Vaill was the
proprietor. The hotel had been built in 1869 and expanded by 1877. It was lit with gas. The dinning room held 300
people. It had a telegraph and billiard room. The Magnolia Hotel was another favorite. It was located on St. George
Street and advertised single rooms and apartments, holding up to 150 sleeping rooms. The Marion house was another
alternative. It was located on Charlotte Street run by R. Palmer & Co. It charged $3 a day. The Florida House was
built in 1875 and contained 131 rooms.  It had gas lights, steam heat and a passenger elevator. The Greeno boarding
house was on Marine street and could hold between 30 and 40 guests. The Hernandez House held 21 rooms on
Charlotte St. The Ocean View Motel run by W.S.M. Pinkham had room for 30 sleeping rooms. The house was
completed in 1884. The Rolleston House contained 40 rooms and was erected in 1882.

Death of Dr. Oliver Bronson
By 1876 Dr. Bronson is dead. Rev. C. O. Reynolds of the Presbyterian Church becomes the 2nd Superintendent of
St. Johns County Public Schools. This arrangement is only temporary. By the 1877 school year Thomas Russell
becomes the 3rd superintendent. (
Rev. C. O. Reynolds letter) (questions on the AMA Teacher's cottage by Thomas

Bronson Cottage
In 1876 Bronson Cottage was constructed at 252 St. George Street. This house was built for Robert and Isabel
Donaldson Bronson as a winter cottage. The architect was
Alexander Jackson Davis one of the most famous architects
of the time.

St. Mary's Missionary Baptist Church
St. Mary's Missionary Baptist Church was founded on May 25, 1875 with Rev. Ivory Barnes as pastor. In 1904 the
pastor was Rev. W. T. Franklin. The church was an offshoot of 1st Baptist
. The church is located at 69 Washington
Street. The building was condemned in 1935 so the congregation met in Cooper's School from 1935-36. On March
30, 1936 the building was finished being rebuilt.

Constance Fenimore Woolson
Constance Fenimore Woolson becomes a boarding house favorite after the Civil War. For a taste of her writing read
"The Ancient City"
from Harper's New Monthly Magazine in January of 1875

Mather Perit Memorial Presbyterian Church
Sometime around 1876 the Presbyterian Church helped organize an African American congregation in Lincolnville. The
congregation worshipped in a small wooden building that was located on the corner of Cedar and Granada streets. The
money for this building was raised by Sarah Mather and Rebecca Perit. Later the congregation moved to a building on
106 Washington street. The new building was a rectangular two story unpainted wooden building. The pastor of the
church from 1906-38 was Rev. J. H. Cooper a graduate of John C. Smith University in Charlotte N.C. He died in
May of 1938.After his death the church records were transferred to the State Clerk of the Know Presbytery in Albany

St. Johns Carries out a Clean final Reconstruction Election
The final election for Reconstruction included the very disputed election of Ruthford B. Hayes and like 2000 Florida
was a battle ground state.
St. Johns County election results presided over by Judge George Atwood was not contested.

Go to Post Reconstruction
Reconstruction in St. Augustine
ab urbe condita - 300 to 312
Stare decisis?"
by Gil Wilson
George Peabody
Library of Congress
Confederate Civil War Monument
Hotel St. Augustine
Magnolia Hotel - Florida State Archives
Florida House - Florida State
St Paul AME
1st Baptist
1st  Methodist Episcopal (South) (Hastings)
Now Christ United Methodist Church
Plains Indians Held at Fort
St. Mary's Missionary Baptist Church
Google Earth Photo
Occupational Licenses 1869-1872
Oliver Bronson
Oath (Nov 10, 1868)
C. O Reynolds
Thomas T. Russell
March 5, 1877
Thomas A. Pacetti
March 13, 1879
Charles F. Perpall
November 8, 1880
Peter Arnau
November 29, 1884
R. F. Sabate
January 3, 1893
E. H. Reynolds
January 5, 1897
W. S. M. Pinkham
January 8, 1901
Deloren D. Corbett
January 7, 1913
Robert B. Meserve
January 6, 1925
C. G. Oldfather
January 8, 1929
D. D. Corbett
January 3, 1933
John A. Crookshank
January 2, 1945
W. Douglas Hartley
January 8, 1957
St. Johns County Superintendent of Schools
To all lovers of the weed, we would recommend the choice lot of cigars
just received by F. H. Greatorex Esq. He always keeps tobacco and
cigars of the very best quality, and at the lowest market prices.\
May 23, 1874
D. B. Usina,
Dealer in
Dry Goods,
Boots, Laces, Hats,
Fancy Goods,
Brick Building,
Charlotte Street,
St. Augustine, Fla
W. W. Van Ness.
Attorney and Counselor-At-Large
St. Augustine, Fla
The undersigned informs the citizens and visitors of this city, that he
has permanently located South of the Plaza in rear of the "Ancient
City Retreat," where he is prepared to attend to Hair dressing,
Shaving, &c., &c. He will also attend to calls at Hotels or residences
when it is so desired. Satisfaction guaranteed. Give me a trial.
Wm. G. Pappy
Oct 25, 1873
J. B. Stickney,
Attorney at Law
and United States Commissioner
Notary Public & Justice of the Peace
rea St. John's County
Office at the Court House
W. Howell Robinson
Attorney & Counselor At Law
St. Augustine, Florida
Office at his Residence,
Hospital Street
!872 - St. Johns County.
County Judge - John B. Stickney
County Clerk - Charles D. Lincoln
Sheriff - Ramon Hernandez
Assessor of Taxes - J. W. Gilbert.
Treasurer -
Oliver Bronson Jr.
Collector of Revenue - J. D. Tanulhill
Superintendent of Schools -
O. Bronson
Commissioners of Pilotage - R. Hernandez, H. M. Snow, A. N.
Pacetti, D. Allen,
Notary Public - J. B. Stickney, J. D. Stanbury, P Dunbar
County Commissioners - H. H. Williams,
A. Anderson, D. Papy,
George Burt,
O. Bronson, Jr.
Constables - John J. Darling, John Irwin

City of St. Augustine
Mayor - W. J. Watkins
Alderman - Iguatio Lopez, B. F. Oliveros, Jas. B. Ponce, Geo. H.
Walton, Jas. Leonardy, Wm Hernandez.
Clerk and Treasurer -- C. F. Perpall
Marshall and Collector --
John C. Canova
Assessor -- John Reyes.

Federal Officers
Collector of Customs - Andrew J. Goss
Postmaster - C. H. Bohn
Dr. C. L. Coulter
Graduate of Victoria Medical University, Toronto, member of the
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Ontario, Canada.

Office and residence on St. George Street between Cuna and Fort
Streets Office hours, from 10 a.m to 12 n. and 2 to 6 p.m.
June 28, 1872
Fresh Groceries
The undersigned takes the method of informing the citizens of St.
Augustine and vicinity, that he has during the past week received
direct from New York, a fresh assortment of Family Groceries of all
kinds. He would particularly call the attention of the public to his
stock of meats. He invites heads of families to give him a call. His
motto is quick sales and small profits.
J. R. Benet.
St. George street. Corner Cuna.
March 22, 1872
F. W. Ansley,
Practical Watchmaker and Jeweler.
Watches Repaired and Warranted
At Nelson's Old Stand,
Charlotte Street
Sept 1871
F. H. Greatorex,
Wholesale and Retail Grocer,
and Commission Merchant.
St. George Street,
St. Augustine, Florida
Commissions Received and prompt returns guaranteed
A Card.
During my absence, Dr. Benedict will attend to my Professional
Jno. E. Peck.
St. Augustine, Sept. 8th 1866
Corn, Salt, Flour, Pork, Lard, Butter and Crackers.
August 11, 1866
B. F. Carr
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Town view 1875
St. Augustine of Hippo
See Dr. Bronson's Review of The
Awakening of St Augustine by
Thomas Graham
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