Post Reconstruction
in St. Augustine
1877-1885
ab urbe condita - 312 to 320
Catholic Schools paid by Public Schools
In 1878 Bishop Moore made an agreement with the St. Johns County school board to pay the
Sisters of St. Joseph to teach with the Sisters providing the buildings. Schools 12 and 13 would be
part of this agreement. Bishop Moore also got the same agreements with other schools in the State of
Florida.

Growth of the St. Johns County School System
In 1879 Mill Creek School (full history)was started by the 4th Superintendent of Schools Thomas A.
Pacetti . By 1881 the St. John's County School system was firmly established. Compromises had
been made with the Catholic church and nuns were paid for teaching through county taxes. 25
schools had been established across the county by this time although not all of them were in operation
in the 1881 school year. (
List of teacher's names and a page from the account book). In 1882 it
grows further. (
See list of teachers and another page from the 1882 account book.). In 1883 the
trustee list for the schools is included. 1884 marks the return of the American Missionary Association
to St. Augustine. They will work as teachers at Public School #2. For most of the decade it will be
Emma Caughey and Helen D. Barton.
(List of teachers 1884-1885)

Edison's Family Comes to St. Augustine
In January 1879 Edison's oldest son, Tommy fell ill with bronchitis. The doctor recommended time in
Florida. Thomas Edison's sister-in-law Alice Stilwell took Tommy to St. Augustine. Later his
Edison's wife and the two other children followed.

Earthquake
On January 13, 1879 a severe shock was felt at 12 on a Sunday night. It seemed to be coming from
the south and traveling toward the north. It lifted a floor enough to lift each end of a bed so as to slide
a set of springs and mattress with people sleeping on them. The largest and most solid buildings were
shaken.

General Sherman Tours
On February 2, 1879 General William T. Sherman returned to St. Augustine. He was there for
several days and there was no public demonstration.

1st Methodist Episcopal Church (South) - Moultrie
On May 3, 1879 the First Methodist Episcopal Church, South was formed in Moultrie 1 mile west of
U. S. Highway 1. It would be closed in 1930. The church was originally part of a circuit. The church
is a 40 x 60 rectangular wooden structure painted white. It has a tower but no bell. The first pastor
was Rev. Hrighes in 1879. Today the church is known as Moultrie Church and next to it is the
Wildwood or Moultrie Cemetery that dates back to the founding of the church

John Papino
John Papino also served as town Marshall in 1885. He served as St. Augustine councilman from
1891-97, 1899-1901, 1902-1903. His
shooting by the town Marshall in a City Hall meeting (where
the Marshall was not charged) marks the end of reconstruction in St. Augustine.

Communications
The city becomes connected to the world-at-large with the telegraph, railroads, and finally in the
1880s the telephone.

Presidential Visits
Two U. S. Presidents take the St. Augustine tour. First U. S. Grant takes a tour of St. Augustine
after leaving office.

He's followed by President
Chester Arthur. President Arthur is the first sitting president to visit St.
Augustine. April 13, 1883 President Chester Arthur came by way of Jacksonville after completing a
St. Johns River tour. He was greeted by a reception committee headed by General Fred Dent,
brother-in-law of ex-President Ulysses S. Grant. He walked by foot about town. Later in company
with Secretary Chandler and three ladies, he attended a Negro Methodist Church where the choir
and congregation sang for more than an hour for him. In 1884, President Chester A. Arthur signed an
appropriation for restoration and historic preservation of
Fort Marion.

The 1880's
By the 1880s the population was 4535 for St. Johns County. There were only a few other towns in
the county: Carterville, Fruit Cove, Switzerland, Matanzas,
Moultrie, Orangedale, Picolata, Racy
Point, Remington Park, and of course, St. Augustine. It had two railways: the St. John's Railway and
the Jacksonville, St. Augustine, and Halifax River Railway. If one took the St. John's Railway to
Tocoi they could take a ferry to West Tocoi and  the Jackosnville, Tampa and Key West Railway.
There were also steamers and stages. The newspapers consisted of
The St. Augustine Press J. P.
Whitney (established 1870),
The Florida Press J. W. Whitney, editor (established 1873), St.
John's Weekly
, C. M. Cooper, editor (established 1879) and The Naturalist in Florida, a
bimonthly with C. J. Maynard, editor (established 1884). The Bank of St. Augustine was the only
bank, it was started by the capital of G. W. Gibbs and
John T. Dismukes .  Surprisingly besides the
public schools there was a kindergarten school. The Newport of the South begins before the Flagler
Era with
Franklin W. Smith, Kingsland, Lorrillard, Edgar, Howard, Alexander Wilson and others.
(See
Bloomfield's Map of St. Augustine)

Mt. Olive Baptist Church
The Mt Olive Baptist Church was organized in 1880 in Deep Creek on State Road #189 in East
Hastings. The first services were in homes then a log house from 1890-95. A frame building was
erected on the site and in 1905 another frame building of five rooms was erected. This building was
remodeled in 1914 and had additions in 1931. The church met on 2nd and 4th Sundays. In 1939 it
had a membership of 45 with a Sunday School, Baptist Training Union and a Woman's Missionary
Union. The first pastor was a Rev. Glisson from 1887-90. The pastor in 1939 was Rev. J. M.
Sullivan a graduate of Mercer University in Macon, Ga.

Olivet Methodist Episcopal Church (Grace United Methodist)
In 1881 George L Adkins owner of the Florida House decided to help start a Methodist Episcopal
Church. The church started in the Government house with Rev. Samuel D. Payne as its first pastor.
They first met in the black Methodist Church on St. George Street (this congregation would later
become Trinity United Methodist Church located on Bridge Street today. The white Methodist
Episcopal Church was organized as Olivet Methodist Episcopal and the building was located on
King and Tolomato (now Cordova) in 1884. When
Henry Flagler needed land for the Alcazar Hotel
he purchased the Olivet Church and built in exchange Grace Methodist Episcopal Church (
see
picture) (located on 8 Carrera Street as Grace United Methodist Church today). The church opened
its doors for worship on January 1, 1888. The new building was designed by
Carrere and Hastings
and erected by
McGuire and McDonald.

Thomas Edison comes to St. Augustine
In 1882 Edison brought his wife and children to Green Cove Springs for a month. In 1883-84
Edison and his family vacationed in St. Augustine. This time Edison was sick. After recovering he
took a tour of the St. Johns river and from
Palatka he telegrammed and wrote letters about the
construction of the new power station in New York.

Founding of the St. Augustine Historical Society
The St. Augustine Historical Society started in 1883 in the old Presbyterian manse on St. George
Street. The original members included Dr. Milton Waldo, the Presbyterian minister, Dr. DeWitt
Webb, and Charlie Johnson. The society was originally named The St. Augustine Institute of Science
and Historical Society. The purpose of the society was to research and document the history, culture
and architectural legacy of St. Augustine

Carnival 1883 (Bloomfield's Historical Guide)
The Carnival is a scene of masquerading, which was formerly celebrated by the Spanish and
Minorcans populations with much taste and gaiety; but since the introduction of an American
population it has, during the whole winter, been prostituted to cover drunken revels and to pass the
basest objects of society into the abodes of respectable people, to the great annoyance of the civil
part of the community.

Max Bloomfield was a bookseller, stationer, and newsdealer in St. Augustine.

Sherivarees (Bloomfield's Historical Guide)
Sherivarces are parties of idle people, who dress themselves in grotesque masquerade whenever a
widow or widower is married. They often parade about the streets and play buffoon tricks for two or
three days, haunting the residence of the new-married pair, and disturbing the whole city with noise
and riot.

Need a Place to Stay 1883 (See Flagler Hotel Competition)
St. Augustine Hotel ($4 per day accommodated 300), Florida House ($4 per day, accommodates
225), Magnolia Hotel ($4 per day, accommodated 225), Sunnyside House, Tyler's House, Hazeltine
House, Edward's House, Patterson House, de Medicis House, Mrs. Hernandez's House, Mrs.
Foster's House. Private Residences accepting boarders: Mr. Ammidown's Residents, Dr. Anderson's
Residence, Mr. Spear's Residence, Mrs. Ball's Residence, Mr. Lorillard's Villa, Presbyterian
Parsonage.

Restoration of the Castillo
In 1884 President Chester A. Arthur signed into law an appropriation of $5,000 for the restoration
and preservation the
Castillo. More appropriations were made in 1888 and 1909. This act
represents the first instance of federal funds allocated for restoration and historic preservation.

Fire Department
In October 1885 the fire department was established. W. Milford Ingraham was the chief and . H.
Dewell was the assistant chief. Flagler starts the subscription for more fire equipment and begins the
PDL Steam Fire Engine Company with J. C. Tosbach foreman. An African-American fire company
was organized with James Morris as foreman with a Mansfield fire engine.

The Florida School for the Deaf and Blind
The school located on San Marco Avenue was founded in 1885 by Thomas Hines Coleman.
Governor W. D. Bloxham worked for the State of Florida to appropriate $20,00 for buildings and
equipment. The school originally had 20 acres and provided instruction in Linotype operation,
gardening, poultry raising, painting, shoe repairing, barbering, cooking, sewing, home-making,
laundry work, beauty culture, basketry, rug-weaving, piano-tuning, mattress making, and
broom-making. Music training was also given. The school maintained a 476 acre farm at Casa Cola
on the North river about 6 miles north of the city. The farm provided fresh food and served as a
training ground for agricultural students.

Cary A. White, Sr. Complex, FL School for the Deaf and the Blind
FLA Black Heritage
Florida Black Heritage Trail

The first African American deaf graduate of the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind was Cary
A. White, Sr. worked at the school for 46 years and was an assistant in the dorm where Ray Charles
lived while he was a student at the school.

North City Baptist Church organized
In 1886 African Americans organized the North City Baptist Church on Bernard Street. This church
was part of the National Baptist Convention of the United States. From 1886-1927 the members
worshiped in an old frame building which was tore down in 1928 for a new building. During the time
of building the congregation worshiped in Herschel Chapel from 1928-1933. The present building
was dedicated in 1933. It was a square frame structure with stucco finish. The cornerstone is
inscribed: North City Baptist Church organized by Rev. Saunders 1886, Rebuilt by Rev. R. Malone
1928, finished by Rev. C. J. Watkins 1933. The church had a tower, bell and an organ. Rev.
Sanders was the first pastor from 1886-1892. The pastor in April of 1938 was Rev. J. F. Ray a
graduate of Americus Institute in Americus, Georgia.

Some Businesses in St. Augustine and the People who operated them
E. M. Alha
, M.D. Druggist, Plaza Place - Dr. Alha is one of the thousands who have come to
Florida for the benefit of health, and impressed with the climate settled here permanently. He has
been a business man and a practitioner in St. Augustine for ten years. His drug store is conspicuously
situated opposite the Plaza, and it has a complete stock of drugs, fancy articles, and mineral waters,
and is one of the principal headquarters for the tourists who are at the hotels. He has three clerks in
the drug-store, Messrs. J. D. Lopez, Eugene Segui, and C. A. Lopez. Mr. J. D. Lopez has a
diploma from the Medical College of Savannah, Ga; Mr. Eugene Sequi is also a practical druggist as
is Mr. C. A. Lopez. Dr. Alha is a native of Williamsport, Pa, and was elected Mayor of St.
Augustine, November, 1883.

Mrs. Hall - Mrs. Hall occupies the late residence of Buckingham Smith, Esq., well known in the
annuals of the ancient city. This splendid property is situated between Palmetta Street and the St.
Sebastian River. It comprises about 15 acres, containing 500 bearing orange-trees, besides more in
orchard form. The entrance is on Palmetto Street, from whence, after passing through the large iron
gates and up a straight shell avenue flanked by cedars, we arrive at the house. This avenue after
encircling the house runs straight in the St. Sebastian river. The house is a fine mansion, two stories,
with extensive verandas, etc., and an old-fashioned, sloping roof. It was built by Mr Hall in the year
1870, is elegantly furnished throughout, and replete with every modern convenience including water
on every floor. The outbuildings are numerous and very fine. Besides hot-houses, stables, etc., there
is an old house now occupied by Mr. Mumford and family, the obliging custodian of the place. This
house is renowned for having been left by Mr. Buckingham Smith, in his will, to an old negro,
formerly a slave, known as "Jank," one of the curiosities of St. Augustine. He attained the great age
of 110 years and preserved his faculties almost to the last. He was a Methodist preacher, and kept
up officiating until within a short period of his decease. He was one of the old landmarks of St.
Augustine, and his declining years, it is gratifying to know, were made pleasant by the kind
ministrations of Mrs. Hall and other ladies. This is one of the fine places in the ancient city, and one of
the oldest groves in the State. Fine mulberries, and many other fruits, are also cultivated.

The Bank of St. Augustine. St. George Street, G. W. Gibbs Manager. -- The Bank of St.
Augustine was established March 1, 1883, with a capital of $10,000, by Messrs. G. W. Gibbs and
John T. Dismukes. It has a large patronage, and does an exchange of business of goodly proportions.
The bank quarters are appropriately fitted up, and eligibility situated on St. George Street in close
proximity to the Plaza. A competent force is employed, and the present prosperous aspect augurs
well for the future business. Mr. G. W. Gibbs, the cashier and manager, is a native of Savannah, Ga.
He has a large experience in the banking business. He came to this city in January, 1883, and two
months later, with his partner, established the institution since successfully conducted. Mr. John T.
Dismukes is a native of Tennessee. He is a silent partner in the above institution, and resides in
Quincy, Fla., where he is extensively engaged in the general merchandise line, and of which city he is
an Alderman.

J. R. Benet. General Merchandise, St. George Street -- As the name suggests, Mr. Benet is of
Spanish descent. He was born in 1844, at St. Augustine, and educated in the schools of the ancient
city. He commenced business in 1870, and deals largely in general merchandise. He is a brother of
Brigadier-General Benet, Chief of Ordinance at Washington, D. C.

Max Bloomfield, Books, Stationary, etc- Mr. Max Bloomfield is a native of Germany, and came
to the United States when 12 years of age. He formerly lived in Philadelphia, where he married. Mr
Bloomfield has been in Florida over eight years and has a fine store fronting on the Plaza, where a
first-class assortment of books and stationary can be found. He is the compiler of a very useful work
known as "Bloomfield's Guide to St. Augustine." It is illustrated, and deservedly popular.

Mr. Christobal Bravo, New Augustine - Desirably located in New Augustine, not far from the
connecting causeway, is the fine place owned by Mr. Christobal Bravo, a lineal descendant of one of
the old Spanish families of St. Augustine. The place of Mr. Bravo comprises about four acres, and
contains 200 bearing trees and about 300 seedlings, many of which are Mandarines. There are also
100 fine guavas, beside figs and other fruits. Upon the place is a fine large dwelling-house with
suitable outbuildings. The property is valued at $12,000. Mr. Bravo is 76 years of age, and was
present when Florida was transferred to the United States, in 1821, of which time he retains many
interesting reminiscences. His father was an officer in the Spanish army, and he (Mr. Bravo, Jr.)
served in the U. S. Army during the Seminole War, in which he was wounded, and attained the rank
of lieutenant. During the war Mr. Bravo was acting Mayor of St. Augustine, and delivered possession
of the city to Captain Rogers of the U. S. steam-frigate
Walbash. (See St. Augustine in the Civil War)

P Capo, Hot, Cold, Sea-Water, and Sulphur Baths, "On the Bay." - The above establishment
occupies an octagonal-shaped building located on the "Bay," and affords every convenience for hot
or cold, sea water, or sulphur baths. Mr. P. Capo, the proprietor, is a native of this city, born in
1844. During the war he served in the Confederate army, and at its close returned to this city, and
later established the business which he now conducts.

C. D. Collins Attorney-at-law. Post Office Building -- Mr. Collins is a native of Waverly, Mo., and
a graduate of the Stanton Normal Institute in Virginia. He was admitted to the bar in Jacksonville in
1880, after studying with his father, William A. Collins, in that city. He came to St. Augustine in
1884, since which time has had a good practice for the time he has been in that city.

J. J. Darling, Florida Views and Curios, Charlotte corner Treasury Street. -- The above-named
business is located in an ancient Spanish building on Charlotte corner Treasury Street. It is three
stories in height, the first story constructed of coquina and the two others of wood. The store is a
cozy apartment on the ground floor, in which are displayed for sale interesting views of Florida
scenery, together with many varieties of Florida souvenirs. The two upper floors contain 11 well
appointed and finely furnished rooms which are let to winter visitors, the rental constituting an
important item in the business of the proprietor. Mr. J. J. Darling is a native of this city, and by trade
a gunsmith. During the war he was ordinance sergeant under General Finnegan in the Confederate
army. At the close of the war he returned to St. Augustine, and renting the building occupied shortly
after established the business as above noted, which he has since conducted with profit.

Messrs. Dwell & Kilborn. Groceries. Vegetables, Fruits. Meats, etc. - The above business was
established in January, 1884. The location is unsurpassed, a fine stock is carried, and a profitable
business is done. Mr. J. H. Dewell is a native of New Haven, Conn., where he was for many years
engaged in the wholesale grocery trade. In 1881 he came to this city, and subsequently established as
above stated. Mr. Dewell is also proprietor of a boarding-house called "The Connecticut." Mr. H. E.
Killhorn is from Plymouth, Conn., where he was formerly engaged in the meat and grocery trade. He
came to this city in January, 1881, and joined his partner in the business now conducted.

John H. Dowd - Tinning, Gas-fitting, Plumbing, etc., St. Hypolita Street -- Mr. John H. Dowd is a
native of Vermont. He came to Florida in 1874, and subsequently located in this city where he enjoys
a fine business in his line. Mr. Dowd is established eligibility, and the present prosperous aspect of his
business leaves nothing to apprehend for its future career.

H. D. Dumas, Orange Grove. -- The grove owned by Mr Dumas is one of the oldest in St.
Augustine. It is located on Bridge Street, and comprises about 15 acres, ten of which are in
seedlings. The oranges upon this place are all of the best quality, and the grove contains some very
old trees. Beside oranges, Mr. Dumas is successfully engaged in pecan culture, having a number of
fine trees producing both the round and the flat pecan. These nuts, owing to their desirable quality,
have been taken to California for planting. The family residence is a fine type of Southern mansion,
surrounded by tropical flowers and fruits which are grown in great variety. The place of Mr Dumas,
like most of those about St. Augustine is a Spanish grant. It was originally granted to Peter Bouquet,
and has been owned by three Peters in succession. Mr. Peter Dumas, the father of the present
proprietor, being the last. Mr. H. D. Dumas, the present proprietor, is a native of Baltimore, about
50 years of age. During the war he served in the Chatham Artillery Company of Savannah, Ga., and
subsequently came to this pointed and located as above.

City Drug-Store, Frank Field, Manager, St. George Street -- The above named establishment has
an eligible location on St. George St. near the business centre of the city. The store is a one-story
building well arranged, and tastefully fitted up in an appropriate style. The largest and best-selected
stock of drugs in the city, it is said, is carried, together with a full line of fancy goods. The proprietor,
Mr. Field, was born at Petersburg, Va., in 1853 and has served a long apprenticeship as a druggist
and pharmacist. He came to this city in December, 1884 and subsequently became manager of the
fine business conducted as above. Dr. Lawrence Alexander was born at Centerville, Fairfax County,
Va., in 1842. He received his education at the universities of Virginia and Maryland, graduating from
the former in 1867, and the latter in 1868. He began practicing in Manassas, Va. and later was
located at Yorkville, S. C. In 1881 he removed to this city, where he has since been practicing. He
has an office in the rear of the City Drug store, and resides in North City. During the war he served in
the Confederate army. He enlisted in a Virginia regiment, and in the latter part of the war was a
physician in charge of the hospitals at Warrenton, Va.

Mrs. Fosters - Mrs. Foster's place is directly in front of Dr. Anderson's and adjoining Mr. Gilbert's.
It comprises six acres. Figs, grapes, etc. are abundant. Mrs. Foster has many varieties of fine roses.
Between her property and the Colored Asylum grounds which lie in the east, there is one of the finest
hedges of sour oranges in the country. It is almost a solid wall. The home is a very nice one and the
grounds are well kept. Mrs. Foster is from Germany, and has owned the place about 30 years.

B. Genovar. Dealer in Provisions, Groceries, and Orange Grower, Charlotte Street -- The business
of Mr. Genovar is one of the largest of its class in Florida. It was established in 1866, is a small
building on the same street where it is now located. The present building was erected in 1876, at
which time it was occupied. It is 88 by 85 feet in area and two stories in height. There are spacious
warehouses on the premises for storage purposes, and for the manufacture of native wines from the
orange, in which industry he has achieved solid reputation. Genovar's Orange Wine is known among
connoisseurs as the best of its class. In the second story of the new building is Genovar's Hall, utilized
for lectures, theatrical entertainments, etc. He employs seven people in all his departments, and does
a large business. Mr. Genovar is a native of St. Augustine. He enlisted when a youth of 14 years in
the Confederate service, and served through the war. He is a large property owner in and about the
city, and intends soon to open a real-estate office for the sale of the same and other property. He has
been a member of the City Council and president of the Board of County Commissioners. Situated
one mile west from the city gate, he is owner of one of the finest orange groves in the State, which
contains 500 trees of choice varieties in bearing.

Mrs. A. W. Gilbert - Among the beautiful places which appear in the suburbs of this quaint old city,
few if any, surpass in point of general attractiveness that which forms the subject of our present
sketch. The grounds comprise about seven and a half acres handsomely laid out, and in general
appearance evidencing the utmost care and attention. Upon the place is a full-bearing orange grove
of 500 trees, beside numerous young trees approaching maturity. The oranges are all the finest kinds,
and the ? is very satisfactory. Other tropical and semi-tropical fruits are successfully cultivated, while
beautiful flowers and shrubs are grown in profusion about the place. The residence, a three story
structure with its wide halls and spacious verandas on the first and second stories, presents an
excellent illustration of the typical Southern mansion, a style of architecture fast becoming obsolete.
Mrs. A. W. Gilbert, the owner of this Floridian Arcadia, is a native of New York. During the winter
months she resides here with her daughter, at which period the mansion is usually well-filled with
Northern guests. The property has been in possession of the family for nearly 20 years.

William H. Gowdry, Restaurant, "On the Bay." -- Mr. Gowdry is a native of Pennsylvania. He
came in Florida in 1883 on account of failing health, and opened a restaurant at Jacksonville. After
remaining in this city for a short period, he removed to St. Augustine and opened a similar
establishment in a building one the Court House of the ancient city. The excellence of Mr. Gowdry's
cuisine is well known, and he enjoys a large patronage. Mr. Gowdry came here on account of feeble
health, and is enthusiastic over the Florida climate, to which he claims to own his life.

Joseph Hernandez, Boot and Shoe Maker, Charlotte corner Hypolita Street - Mr. Hernandez is a
native of St. Augustine, where he was educated. During the Indian war he was a member of Captain
Mickler's company, and draws a United States pension for wounds received. In the late war he was
under Colonel Wescott in the Confederate service. He located in Jacksonville after the war as a boot
and shoe maker, and returned to his native city in 1873 where he is one of the representative men in
his line of business. Mr. Hernandez has a reputation as a musician, and has been a member of a brass
and string band for 20 years.

Charles E. Johnson, General Merchandise, Charlotte Street, --- The store of Mr. Johnson has a
desirable location on Charlotte Street. A full line of general merchandise is kept and a goodly trade
enjoyed. Mr. Johnston was born in New York in the year 1822, and came in this State in 1874. He
has been Mayor of this city, and is now a member of the council and a successful merchant.

F. F. Joyce, General Merchandise, -- Mr. Joyce is a native of Western New York. He came to
Florida in 1872, and has built up an extensive trade in general merchandise. In addition to the above
named business he makes artesian wells, for which industry there is an active demand. He contracts
in drill artisans from two to six inches in diameter, and guarantees a good flow of water. Mr. Joyce
has a charter for a city water-works, which he soon expects to put in operation.

Mr. J. J. Knom. Manuf. of Human Hair Goals -- Mr. Knom manufacture of hair-goods, is a native
of this city to which her line of business, and enjoys an extensive patronage. Mr. Knom is a native of
New York. For four years he has most acceptably fitted in the position of clerk in the Magnolia
Hotel, in which capacity he has made many friends.

Mrs. Alonzo Lopez, Manufacturer of Palmetto Work -- Mrs. Lopez's place is situated on Charlotte
Street, near the Fort. She manufactures palmetto work of all kinds. Her husband was killed during
the war, since which time she has built up a successful business in this speciality.

Walter Lyon & Co. Grocers, King, corner St. George --- One of the largest business houses in St.
Augustine is that of Messrs. Walter Lynn & Co. situated at the corner King and St. George streets.
A stock comprising groceries, hardware, crockery, furniture, and building materials is carried, the
value of which aggregated $30,000. Mr Lynn was born in Vermont in 1814, and has had an
extensive business. He first began business in his native State, and subsequently at different periods,
was located in Michigan and Wisconsin. During Fillmore's administration he was postmaster at
Washington, Wis. and later he resided for two years in Menilowoc. He came to Florida in 1869
where his is delighted with the climate. He has a fine residence at South Orange, N. J., where he
spends the summer. Walter Lyon & Co. is one of the solid firms in Florida.

C. E. Mackey, Bookseller and Stationer, St. George Street---This stock includes book, stationary,
fancy goods papers, Florida views and souvenirs, and a profitable business is done. Mr. Mackey
was born in Virginia in 181821. Years ago he was connected with several New York papers, and at
the breaking-out of the war was proprietary editor of the
Fireside Gazette, published in that city.
Later he was in the stationary business in New York, and in 1876 he came to St. Augustine and
engaged in this business.

Messrs. Joseph & Meyerson, Merchant Tailors, Furnishing Goods, Millinery, etc. etc. -- The
members of the above firm are both natives of Germany. Mr. Joseph came to this country in 181842,
and Mr. Meyerson in 1809. Mr. Meyerson was first in business at Buffalo, N. Y. He came to
Jacksonville in 1875, and for a time was connected as salesman with a permanent clothing house of
that city. He subsequently removed to Ocala where he remained until he came to this city. Messrs.
Joseph & Meyerson in gents furnishing and fancy goods, millinery, etc. They have a fine store
desirably located in the St. Augustine Hotel building, facing the Plaza.

E. Mission. Curiosity Store, St. George Street --- One of the attractive places of resort in St.
Augustine is the curiosity of Mr. E. Mission situated on St. George Street, near the Plaza and post
office. He also manufactures Florida curiosities and has an exhibition an excellent variety of alligators'
teeth, wild boars' tusks,sea beans, hand painted souvenirs, sea shells, and everything in which a
stranger or tourist is interested. Mr. Mission is a native of Belgium. He came in United States in
1872, since which time he has been in this line of business. He came to St. Augustine in 1879, and is
now proprietor of one of the largest curiosity stores here. He has a branch at Cape May, N. J.,
where he resides during the summer months.

Captain A. V. Monson. Proprietor of Yachts and Sail-Boats. -- The visitor to St. Augustine should
consider the sojourn incomplete without a sail in the harbor and over in the beach where one can
climb the stairs to the top of the light-house on Anastasia Island, and get a magnificent view of the
ocean on one side and the town on the other. In order to do this, it will be necessary to engage one
of Captain Monson's yachts. Mamie, Maria, Traveller or Ocrenba. which are at anchor near the
club-house. Captain Monson is a native of St. Augustine and about 58 years of age. He is also
proprietor of a boarding house which can accommodate ten guests at $1.50 per day from $9 to $10
per week.

Mrs. B. F. Oliveros, Palmetto and Feather Work, St. George Street--The above is a branch of
industry peculiarly Floridian and one affording a source of income for a large portion of the
inhabitants of the Floral State. Mrs. B. F. Oliveros is a lineal descendant of one of the old Spanish
families whose history may be aptly said to be that of the city itself. The house in which the business is
located has been the family residence for 100 years. It is built of coquina and is a true type of the
ancient Casa de Espanola. Mrs. Oliveros was the first to establish a regular business for the sale of
this line of goods in St. Augustine. The business was established in 1865, and from a small beginning
it has developed into a large and prosperous industry giving employment in its present status to fully
100 people.

A. M. Pacetti, Soda Water, Fruits, etc---Among the many industries which the visitors from the
North have fermented and increased, this is perhaps the business which has most felt their influence.
Mr. Pacetti, who is a native of St. Augustine, has a fine place on St. George Street. He also does a
flourishing confectionery business, admirably conducted by Mrs. Pacetti. Mr. Pacetti makes a
speciality of a milk punch, which is most invigorating without being intoxicating.

Joseph Pomar, Baker and Confectioner, St. George Street -- Mr. Pomar is a native of St.
Augustine and is of Spanish descent. He was born in 1830 and was educated in his native city. He
was a private in the Confederate service, and has been in the ice-creme and confectionery business
for ten years. During the winter months he conducts a restaurant in connection with the above and is
indirectly connected with the manufacture of palmetto work.

Rollestons Curiosity Store -- William Rolleston, Proprietor, St. George Street -- The "curio"
business of Mr. Wm. Rolleston occupies a commodious handsomely appointed apartment in the first
story of the large structure which takes its name from the proprietor and owner. The business
embraces everything in the line of Florida novelties, of which the proprietor is an extensive
manufacturer. A large and complete stock is carried, three people are employed, and the annual
business approximates a prosperous sum. Mr. Wm. Rolleston is a native of England and by trade a
jeweler. He came to New York in 1868, and for a number of years was engaged in the jewelry
business at this point. In 1876 he removed to St. Augustine, where he engaged in the curio business
as above mentioned.

Bridge Rebuilding (Florida Times-Union, Oct. 17, 1883)
The County Board of Commissioners have ordered the repairing, or virtual rebuilding, of the bridge
connecting us with West St. Augustine by the skilled bridge builder,
Mr. William Baya. I have heard
talk that he will do the work so as not to interfere with the passing of vehicles while it is going on.

Apache Indians Come to Fort Marion (partial list of captives)
In 1886 members of the
Apache Nation were held at Fort Marion including one of the wives of
Geronimo and son. Geronimo
(autobiography) did NOT stay in St. Augustine. (picture en route)
Lieutenants Conkling and Smith were in charge of the Indians confined in Fort Marion. There were
over 447 prisoners at the fort. The first child born at the fort was Geronimo's. His wife christened the
child "Marion,"
(letters about Apache Indians) after the fort, and a silver tag reading "Marion
Geronimo, September 13, 1886," always hung from the babe's wicker cradle. This medal was given
by the War Department. It is located on the Apache reservation today at Mascalero Rez.
Chihuahua's daughter was also born in St. Augustine and given the name "Coquina." His son was
named "Osceola". With the Apaches came one African-American named "Indian Dick". He stayed
when the Apaches left and changed his name to Dick Hicks. (
Personal account of the Apaches and
life at Fort Marion by an Apache Indian) [See note on Indian Dick in Plains Indians on
Reconstruction page. ] Col. Pratt came to Fort Marion and chose 62 of the older Apache children to
go to Carlisle. Included in this group was Asa Daklugie, the sons of Chatto (the scout who convinced
Geronimo to surrender) and Geronimo's son, Chappo. 1/4 of the Apache children died in Carlisle.
(Description of Cha-ja-la Dance held at Fort Marion). Chappo, himself, would later die at Mobile
Bay and be buried in the National Cemetery there along with 12 others (including Larry Fun the
cousin of Geronimo.)

At least twenty-two (six women, one man and fifteen children) died in confinement in the Castillo.
There were at least 10 births.

Official Records
April 8, 1886 - First Apache prisoners left Fort bowie (Ariz.) for Fort Marion.
April 14 - Preparations under way at Fort Marion to receive prisoners.
April 15 - First prisoners arrive at Waycross, Ga., en route to Fort Marion.
April 16 - First prisoners arrive [Editor note: Chihuahua's band of Chiricahua Apache]
April 20 - First tents erected on north rampart.
June - Artesian well drilled in fort parade.
Sept. - Sisters of St. Joseph taught Apache children at Fort Marion.
Sept 9 - Another large body of prisoners left Fort Apache (Ariz.) for Fort Marion
Sept. 11 - Chatto's band ordered to Fort Marion and arrived Sept 18 when more tents were erected.
Sept. 23 - The highest number of prisoners on sick report is 28.
Oct 1 - Lt. Col. Langdon of the fort reported rations are insufficient.
Oct 7 - Col. Langdon left St. Augustine.
Oct 22 - Geronimo's band left San Antonio, Tex., for Fort Pickens, Fla. and arrived Oct. 25.
Oct. 26 - The women and children captured with Geronimo arrived at Fort Marion from Texas.
Oct. 30 - First group of Apache students left for (new) Carlisle Institute."
Nov. 7 - Last prisoners arrived in St. Augustine.
Nov. 17 - Another group of students left Fort Marion for Carlisle, Pa.
Dec. 21 - An organization was formed in St. Augustine to further education of prisoners.
Jan 1887 - Five births in Fort Marion, including 'Coquina' [Editor's note: Chihuahua's daughter].
Mar. - Clothing for women prisoners arrived at fort.
Mar. 24 - Sixty-four more Indian children left for Carlisle.
March 27 - Apaches left Fort Marion for Mount Vernon, Alabama

A Church Building on Wheels
In 1870 a chapel or Sunday School room with tower for the bell was built adjoining the Presbyterian
Church on St. George Street. In 1877 the building was moved to the back of the Post Office facing
Cordova Street. In 1888 the chapel was again moved to a lot in North City near today's Oldest Jail
and was used as a Mission Sunday School until 1896. (The movers of the building were the Apache
Indians.) In 1896 it was sold to the County School Board for $200 and used as a public school.
Finally it was sold to the Sisters of St. Joseph and rolled down San Marco Ave. to St. Agnes where
it became part of the parochial school.


Go to Flagler Era.
See 1884 Sanborn Fire Maps of St.
Augustine for a detailed street by
street, building by building view.
President U. S. Grant - Library of Congress
President Chester Arthur
Library of Congress
Moultrie Church
Florida School for the Deaf and Blind
Apache Indians at Fort
Bloomingfield' Map of St. Augustine 1883 -
(
Enlarged)
General William T. Sherman
Capo's Bath House
Custom Search
              President Grover Cleveland Annual Address 1888
The Apache Indians, whose removal from their reservation in Arizona followed the capture
o£ those of their number who engaged in a bloody and murderous raid during a part of the
years 1885 and 1886, are now held as prisoners of war at Mount Vernon Barracks, in the
State of Alabama. They numbered on the 31st day of October, the date of the last report,
83 men, 170 women, 70 boys, and 59 girls; in all, 382 persons. The commanding officer
states that they are in good health and contented, and that they are kept employed as fully
as is possible in the circumstances. The children, as they arrive at a suitable age, are sent to
the Indian schools at Carlisle and Hampton.

Last summer some charitable and kind people asked permission to send two teachers to
these Indians for the purpose of instructing the adults as well as such children as should be
found there. Such permission was readily granted, accommodations were provided for the
teachers, and some portions of the buildings at the barracks were made available for school
purposes. The good work contemplated has been commenced, and the teachers engaged
are paid by the ladies with whom the plan originated.

I am not at all in sympathy with those benevolent but injudicious people who are constantly
insisting that these Indians should be returned to their reservation. Their removal was an
absolute necessity if the lives and property of citizens upon the frontier are to be at all
regarded by the Government. Their continued restraint at a distance from the scene of their
repeated and cruel murders and outrages is still necessary. It is a mistaken philanthropy,
every way injurious, which prompts the desire to see these savages returned to their old
haunts. They are in their present location as the result of the best judgment of those having
official responsibility in the matter, and who are by no means lacking in kind consideration
for the Indians. A number of these prisoners have forfeited their lives to outraged law and
humanity. Experience has proved that they are dangerous and can not be trusted. This is
true not only of those who on the warpath have heretofore actually been guilty of atrocious
murder, but of their kindred and friends, who, while they remained upon their reservation,
furnished aid and comfort to those absent with bloody intent.

These prisoners should be treated kindly and kept in restraint far from the locality of their
former reservation; they should be subjected to efforts calculated to lead to their
improvement and the softening of their savage and cruel instincts, but their return to their old
home should be persistently resisted
President Grover Cleveland
1st Spanish Period 1565 to 1600  
Reconstruction 1865 to 1876
1st Spanish Period 1600 to 1700  
Post-Reconstruction 1876 to 1885
1st Spanish Period 1700 to 1763   
Flagler Construction 1885 to 1890
British Period 1763 to 1783
Flagler Era 1890 to 1900
2nd Spanish Period 1783 to 1821
Progressive 1900 - 1912
American Territorial 1821 to 1845
New Freedom and World War I
American Statehood 1845 to 1860
The Roaring 1920s
Civil War 1860 to 1865  - Page 1
The Great Depression
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 2
World War II
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 3
Post World War II Era
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 4
Civil Rights 1960 to 1965
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 5
St. Augustine Rebounds 1965-1990
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 6
Subject Index
Civil War 1860 to 1865 - Page 7
Timeline of St. Augustine History
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