|St. Augustine Civil Rights
1960 - 1965
by Gil Wilson (Introduction)
ab urbe condita 395 - 400
|Civil Rights Era -
"One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral
responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that 'an unjust law is no law at
all'" (Martin Luther King - Letter from Birmingham Prison, Alabama)
In 1957 the NAACP chapter was reactivated by Reverend Thomas Wright of St. Mary's Baptist Church and
Rev. John H. McKissick of 1st Baptist. Rev. Wright requested that the city commission provide additional
recreational facilities and funding for a community library that the city approved.
March 15, 1960 6 students from Florida Memorial staged a sit-in at Woolworth. On the third day students were
hit with clubs, fists, and chains. The door had been locked so that the police could not enter.
In the summer of 1961 Henry Thomas returning from Howard University attempted to break the segregation
barrier at Woolworth's lunch counter. Not only was he carried off to jail but they tried to have him committed to
a mental institution. Today, Henry Thomas is a owner of several McDonalds in the Atlanta area.
Suit to Desegregate St. Johns County Public Schools
April 6, 1962 a suit is filed to desegregate St. Johns County public schools.
The National Quadricentennial Commission
In 1963 President John F. Kennedy created the National Quadricentennial Commission with Mr. Herbert E.
Wolfe as chairman. Other members included Henry Ford, Jr., J. Peter Grace, Edward H. Linchfield,
Archbishop Joseph P. Hurley, Senator George Smathers and Spessard Holland. Earle W. Newton became the
executive director. Kennedy said that the Commission would form "a cultural bridge to Latin America." It
received a $25,000 grant. The National Park Service would reconstruct the Cubo Line and repair the City gate.
Dr. Robert B. Hayling
In 1963 Dr. Robert B. Hayling took over leadership of the Youth Council of the NAACP. He was a dentist
after graduating in 1960 he moved to St. Augustine. The tone of Dr. Hayling becomes an issue. On June 19 he is
quoted by the St. Augustine Record as saying: "We are not going to die like Medgar Evers." "Passive resistance
is no good in the face of violence." "I and others of the NAACP have armed ourselves and will shot first and ask
questions later." The UPI had a news release that was issued by WKOY radio that stated "I and others have
armed and we will shoot first, and ask questions later." While it was only used one time it quickly became the
talk of the town. Later Dr. Hayling would call the FBI and relate how he had given a rife to a youth to protect
the youth and himself. Dr. Hayling denied making the remarks. He did say that Virgil White, the St. Augustine
chief of police was such a segregationist that he would not afford the movement proper protection.
On February 23 the NAACP requested the Vice-President not come to St. Augustine. (See letter from Adam
Clayton Powell to President John F. Kennedy) Vice-President Lyndon Johnson had been invited to come to St.
Augustine for the dedication of the Arrivas House. Dr. Hayling sent word that Johnson should cancel his visit.
Compromises were made before Johnson ignored his pledge for a meeting between his press secretary and local
leaders. President Kennedy was asked to withhold the $350,000 for the City's 400th Birthday Celebration.
March 11 LBJ attends a fund-raising banquet in St. Augustine where blacks were forbidden to buy tickets for
themselves but had to have tickets bought by whites. After threats of pickets from Dr. Hayling two all-black
tables were added.
March 12 NAACP visits city commission to find an empty room with a tape recorder for them to list their
Actual School Desegregation
May 10 parents begin requesting that their students be enrolled in various all-white schools.
Shelley Elected Mayor
June 3, Dr. Joseph A. Shelley was elected Mayor of St. Augustine.
June 16 meeting was held with city where Police chief Stuart read aloud from various right-wing journals
denouncing Communist influence on "niggers."
Beginning of the Civil Rights Bill
Message from the President of the United States on the submission of the Civil Rights Bill
June 19, 1963
To the Congress of the United States:
Last week I addressed to the American people an appeal to conscience—a request for their cooperation in
meeting the growing moral crisis in American race relations. I warned of “a rising tide of discontent that
threatens the public safety” in many parts of the country. I emphasized that “the events in Birmingham and
elsewhere have so increased the cries for equality that no city or State or legislative body can prudently choose
to ignore them.” “It is a time to act,” I said, “in the Congress, in State, local legislative bodies and, above all, in
all of our daily lives.”
In short, the time has come for the Congress of the United States to join with the executive and judicial
branches in making it clear to all that race has no place in American life or law.
…. The venerable code of equity law commands “for every wrong, a remedy.” But in too many communities, in
too many parts of the country , wrongs are inflicted on Negro citizens for which no effective remedy at law is
clearly and readily available. State and local laws may even affirmatively seek to deny the rights to which these
citizens are fairly entitled---and this can result only in a decreased respect for the law and increased violations of
Mrs. Fannie Fullerwood
By June 24, 1963 Mrs. Fannie Fullerwood had become President of the NAACP. She requested a meeting
with City officials that listed 6 items for the City's attention.
Summer Demonstrations, 1963
On June 30 demonstrators were turned away from a municipal putting course leased to Bert Stone despite the
city commissioners statement that all city facilities were desegregated (the library also refused admission).
In the summer demonstrations began with picketing at the Civic Center and Woolworth on June 25.. July 1 a
shotgun fight at Dr. Hayling's house between white and black youths occurred. Buckshot was fired at Hayling's
house from a 1953 green Pontiac six youths were wounded. This case would be viewed as a continuation of an
earlier series of incidents. Vaughn and Keeny were two white kids caught with guns. The black youths had also
had a gun but no evidence was taken of them having fired it. On July 16 Judge Charles Mathis would dismiss all
From the July 1 picketing James Hauser lost his job as a school bus driver.
The Tourist Information Center was picketed on July 2.
July 5th Rev. Goldie Eubanks, Vice President of local NAACP advised picketing of businesses would continue
on daily basis until further notice.
July 16 Judge Charles Mathis dismissed all charges against whites and negroes in the Hayling shooting.
July 17 a sit-in was held at a local pharmacy. There were 16 arrests made for trespass. On August 1 the adults
were given fines of $100 or 45 days in county jail. They were convicted under the Florida Undesirable Guest
Judge Mathis banned picketing and participation in demonstrations by juveniles on July 23. They were to be
turned over to Fred Brinkoff for prosecution.
On July 28 nine adults were charged with trespassing and convicted by Justice of the Peace Marvin Gier. They
were sentenced to 45 days in jail or a $100 fine. County Judge Charles Mathis tried six of the children: two
were released to their parents and the rest were sentenced to 30 days in the county jail (or $100 fine) because
their parents would not promise to keep them out of future demonstrations. Later they would be sent to reform
schools in Ocala and Marianna. These became the St. Augustine Four: Audrey Nell Edwards, JoAnn Anderson,
Willie Carl Singleton and Samuel White. The two girls were taken to Forest Hills Schools for Girls in Lowell,
Florida. They were put in isolation for 56 days. The next night in a demonstration at the county jail the 250
protesters were assaulted with night sticks. Gerald Eubanks as Youth Council President reported on conditions
to Vice-President Johnson. (The children were finally released by the State Cabinet without condition on January
14, 1964 bringing this to a close.)
Judge Weinberg sentenced youths to 60 days in jail or $50 fine for handing out handbills in white neighborhoods
of the Daytona Beach Morning Journal criticizing Judge Mathis.
Florida Advisory Committee to the US Commission on Civil Rights
On August 16 the Florida Advisory Committee to the US Commission on Civil Rights (that the whites
1. Deep-seated and widespread feeling of discontent among the Negro Citizens of St. Augustine ...considerably
worse than in most if not all other cities in the state.
2. No lines of communications
3. Only demonstrations worked to make grievances known.
4. Atmosphere in St. Augustine is repressive.
1. Halt to the use of $350,000 federal funds for quad centennial.
2. Suspension of Fairchild Stratos Contracts until discrimination practices and intimidation of workers was ended.
3. Against AFL-CIO Local 1224 to end discrimination.
4. Withhold Federal funds till State of Florida releases children.
August 22 Western Auto and a clothing store were picketed. 9 persons were arrested for trespass. August 30 4
people were arrested while picketing Western Auto and McCroy's. Their charge was picketing shall not
interfere with pedestrian traffic.
On August 28 5 students were enrolled in previously all white schools without incident. (Integration of schools
was under Federal Court order.)
Cattle Prods and Dogs
There were more demonstrations at Woolworth's, McCrory's and Del Monico's restaurant. August 31 police
used cattle prods and dogs to arrest 12 demonstrators.
On Labor day 1963 the first demonstration was held in the plaza. 27 people were arrested with the police again
using cattle prods. Bertell Duncan and Goldie Eubanks were among the cattle prodded. Robert Ingram the
Jacksonville Vice President Youth Council NAACP requested FBI protection when he had to appear in court
on charges he attended meeting in plaza and at the St. George sit-in.
September 18 - the KKK distribute handbills without interference after the arrests of black youths in July who
passed out handbills.
On September 18 at a Ku Klux Klan rally behind South Gate Bowling Alley 1 mile south of St. Augustine on
Route 1 Dr. Hayling, James Hauser (driver of Hayling's car) , James Jackson, and Clyde Jenkins were brought
into the meeting and beaten. Rev. Cheney made it to a phone booth to call for help. Lawrence Bessent and
Clarence Wilson were KKK who filed charges against Dr. Hayling and others from incident. They supposedly
gave sheriff Dr. Hayling's handgun. Judge Marvin Grier fined Hayling $100 with a conviction of assault.
Starting on September 27, 1963 the St. Augustine Record would publish date, time and location of all KKK
meetings. At this point the FBI began to think that there was Klan influence in the Sheriff's office. (See
Connie Hunter's Letter to John F. Kennedy
On September 27, 1963 Connie Hunter a local St. Augustine businessman wrote a letter to John F. Kennedy
that the troubles in St. Augustine were being caused by outsiders and the African-Americans in St. Augustine
were well treated. (See letter)
On October 22 Molotov Cocktails were thrown at the homes of the 3 families who had integrated St. Johns
County Public Schools. One house was severely damaged.
Death of William David Kincaid
On October 25 a carload of four young white men driving through Lincolnville (with a loaded shotgun) was shot.
William David Kincaid, age 24, was killed, Rev. Goldie Eubanks, Richard Eubanks and Chester Hamilton were
arrested. The case was never brought to trial. Rev. Connie Lynch officiated at the funeral. Buddy Cooper,
Exalted Cyclops (leader) of the St. Augustine Klavern Number 519 was an active pallbearer. Bart Griffen, Jacy
Harden, Eugene Spegal, W. Eugene Willson all KKK along with Holstead Manucy were honorary pallbearers.
Later Clifford Eubanks was arrested for kidnapping and murder of a female witness that could not be found. She
was from St. Johns Island, South Carolina. This also was dropped.
October 29 Dr. Hayling was arrested and charged with hindering the investigation of "The Harlem hand
grenade". This night of violence took place after the funeral of Kincaid. A Klan rally was held and several
members were sent on a mission. Several places and cars were shot and a hand grenade was thrown at the
Harlem. For unknown reasons the grenade didn't go off.
On November 9 a conversation in the Ship's Bar was overheard between 3 white men for a $500 reward for
the death of Dr. Hayling. The conversation was reported to the FBI.
November 22, 1963 Assassination of President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas.
December 1963 a St. Johns County grand jury blames violence on militant Negro leaders and the KKK.
More Violence against Blacks
In 1964 the national spotlight was placed on St. Augustine. January 21 Charles Brunson (a deaf-mute) attended
a PTA meeting. At the meeting several firebombs were thrown which destroyed Brunson's car.
February 7, the Robinson family home burned down. They had been one of the families to integrate local public
schools. Turney W. Burkhard, Deputy State Fire Marshall ruled after soil analysis that flammable liquid was
thrown on the house.
February 8 gunshots were fired into the home of Dr. Hayling killing his dog and causing considerable damage to
February 10 the United States House of Representatives pass the Civil rights Act of 1964 by a vote of 290 to
February 16 The United Florida KKK blow up the Godfrey house in Jacksonville to get the family out of an
integrated school. William Sterling Rosecrans the leader of the dynamiting was taken to St. Augustine by fellow
klansmen where he was given employment and a cover to conceal his identity.
March 6 Dr. Hayling, Rev Eubanks, Henry Twine and several others drove to the Southern Christian Leadership
(Motto: "To save the soul of America") Conference in Orlando to meet with the aides of Rev. Martin Luther
Spring Vacation 1964 and Mrs. Mary Peabody
March 11 a letter sent inviting students from the north to spend their spring vacation in St. Augustine with the
Civil Rights struggle. March 26 demonstration at Murray High School resulted in Sheriff's deputies arresting two
white college students for organizing the disturbance. The action began over Easter week, March 28-April 2.
Students were invited from New England to participate. The SCLC in New England planned the attack. James
Breedon an Episcopal priest was able to get Esther Burgess, the wife of John Burgess the new suffragan
Episcopal Bishop in Massachusetts, Mary Peabody wife of the retired bishop of central New York (and mother
of the Massachusetts governor), and Hester Campbell the wife of Donald Campbell a former suffragan
Episcopal Bishop from Los Angeles. Esther Burgess was a light skinned African-American. After the three
attempted to eat lunch in the Ponce Motor Lodge they were asked to leave. Esther Burgess was arrested later
that day for trespassing. SCLU attorneys Tobias Simon of Miami, John M. Pratt and William Kunstler of New
York field petitions for writs of habeas corpus in the Federal District Court of Jacksonville. Others arrested
included William Sloan Coffin and David Robinson, chaplains of Yale University, Robert Hayling and fifteen year
old Annie Ruth Evans.
March 23 letter from Interior Dept to White House over situation with Mrs. Malcolm Boyd and stating that
Easter services at the Castillo must be integrated. (See letter)
March 28 26 demonstrators were arrested for trespassing. March 29 9 demonstrators were arrested for
trespassing and resisting arrest. Chaplain Winston Davidson, Yale University, was charged with failure to obey a
police officer. March 30 39 arrested for sit in dash in. Refused to post bond.
On March 30 Mrs. Peabody lead a group of African Americans to integrate the 10:00 service of Trinity
Episcopal Church. The vestry locked the exterior doors to prevent Mrs. Peabody from entering. (This started
other groups to attempt to integrate Trinity including Julian Brown and were asked to leave by the ushers.
Mrs. Malcolm Peabody was accompanied by Mrs. Donald J. Campbell, Mrs. John Burgess, Prof Lawrence
Burholder and Rev. William Sloane Coffin, Jr. 90 demonstrators including Mrs. Malcolm Peabody (picture of
arrest) the mother of the Governor of Massachusetts and the wife of an Episcopal Bishop were arrested at the
Ponce de Leon Lodge. Peabody was charged with trespass after warning. 150 demonstrators marched through
downtown to the Ponce de Leon Hotel dinning room. City police arrive with dogs and cattle prods 117
demonstrators were placed in the county jail. Mrs. Mary Peabody refused to be released from the jail until all
the protesters in the Ponce de Leon Lodge and the Ponce de Leon Hotel dinning room demonstrations were
Winston W. Davidson, white minister from Conn. picketing against segregation in downtown St. Augustine was
surrounded by white citizens who bodily prevented him from picketing while burning him with cigarettes. He was
arrested for "blocking a public sidewalk" and "interfering with the lawful orders of an officer."
April 1 74 students were taken into custody at Murray High School who refused to attend classes and where on
their way to a demonstration.
Mrs. Lucille Plummer is fired from her job at Flagler Hospital after being warned about her Civil Rights activity.
Mrs. Nora Lee Guess was fired from the Hotel Ponce de Leon after six years employment.
Mr. Bungum Robinson was fired from his job at Bozard Ford after being elected Treasurer of the local SCLC.
Lillie Brown was one of the demonstrators here in St. Augustine. April 5, Hosea Williams disappointed at having
only 10 adults volunteer for an arrest at a sit-in.
April 6, 1964 - Clifford Alexander sends a memo to Lee White as the Lyndon Johnson White House attempts
to create a Federal response to the ongoing civil rights struggle in St. Augustine and the 400th Celebration. (See
memo) (See memo from the assistant to the Secretary of the Interior).
April 10 - Article in the St. Petersburg Times states that one member of the National Quadricential
Commission - Edward Linchfield, chancellor of the University of Pittsburg said: "The significance of the St.
Augustine Quadricentennial is not measured alone in its years. It is important, too, as a symbol of the spread of
western culture into this hemisphere. An essential part of that culture is our belief in the value, the dignity and
therefore the quality of all men.
It would be a repudiation of that culture, a reflection on that symbol and a mockery of that event were this
nation, through the sponsorship of the presidential commission, to hold a national and even international
celebration in a community in which any of our people are denied the unmistakable full measure of their
I continue as a member of this commission because I have every expectation that the rights and opportunities of
all people will be respected in St. Augustine as clearly as they are implicit in our heritage."
April 14 Trinity Episcopal Church integrated by five local black Episcopalians on orders of the Episcopal
bishop, Bishop West who had ordered all churches in the Diocese of Florida to open church doors to anyone
who wished to attend services. On April 26 the vestry met and drafted a resolution to the bishop censuring the
National Council of the Episcopal Church for its position on civil rights. The conservative forces of Trinity
included A. H. Tebeault, Dr. Hardgvoe Norris, E. W. Trice, Clayton Stratton and Kenneth Barrett.
May 15 a KKK rally was held at Vilano Beach point, the burning cross was highly visible in St. Augustine. May
20 Dr. Hayling files suit to integrate Flagler Hospital. May 25 Andrew Young calls on Mayor Shelby.
Staff Report of United States Civil Rights Commission
On May 18, 1964 the staff of the United States Civil Rights Commission created an internal report on the recent
civil rights history in St. Augustine and some recommends on what could be done with the 400th Anniversary
Celebration to pressure the city to address concerns of the African-American community. (See Report)
May 18 - Dr. King speaking at a St. Augustine Baptist church calls St. Augustine a "small Birmingham" he says
that he will return. He said that segregation would soon be over in St. Augustine "because trouble don't last
May 19 Trinity vestry voted to withhold money from the Episcopal diocese and sent a three page letter blaming
"racial agitators". This letter was published in the church bulletin.
School Integration Continues - with a twist
After the burning of one house and a car 13 more African-American students are integrated into the St. Johns
County School system. The St. Augustine Record publishes the names and ADDRESSES of the new students.
May 26 - AP tape for the day with quotes from Martin Luther King and Hosea Williams (see tape)
The Mayor Issues a Warning
On May 28 the Mayor issued a warning to parents and children about participating in the upcoming Civil Rights
May 28 - First mass night-march to the slave market.
May 29 - the house SCLC rented for Dr. King in St. Augustine was sprayed with gunfire. Rev. King responds
with fax to President.
Street Demonstrations - Hoss Manucy, Connie Lynch, J. B. Stoner and L. O. Davis and the Klan
May 30 the street demonstrations begin. The street demonstrations used a new weapon in the Civil Rights
arsenal - Night demonstrations. These were extremely dangerous because of the potential for violence that could
occur and rapidly disappear. White groups organized by Hoss Manucy (local - head of the Ancient City Gun
Club - convicted felon, moonshine runner, and special deputy sheriff). The Surf Side Casino was the location of
both Klan and Ancient City Gun meetings. (Since June 25, 1961 the Florida Ku Klux Klan and the United
Klans of the KKK, Inc, in Florida consolidated - the new organization was known as the United Florida Ku
Klux Klan). Connie Lynch (segregationist minister from California - called the "Chaplain of the KKK, drove
around in a pink Cadillac wearing a Confederate Flag for a vest - a sample of his talk: Rallying the Klan shortly
after the Baptist church bombing, Lynch said the victims "weren't children. Children are little people, little human
beings, and that means white people... They're just little niggers, and if there's four less niggers tonight, then I say,
'Good for whoever planted the bomb!" and J. B. Stoner (KKK Atlanta Attorney - now convicted for church
bombings) held counter meetings on the plaza. Stoner's favorite comment to the crowd: "Niggers want to
integrate because they want our white women." (Partial list of some arrested Civil Rights workers) Local law
enforcement officers used trained dogs in crowd control. L. O. Davis the County Sheriff, 20 years, an ex-
railroad detective, football coach said: "I went out Elk's Rest to talk with those Niggers. Niggers that's what I
called them. I told them I didn't want a single nigger vote, because I didn't want to beholden to them for any
election." (1964 Primary) William Rosecrans another KKK had been hiding out in St. Augustine Nicks Boat
Yard under the name of James Lewis. Manucy betrays him to the police suspecting he had bombed a FECR
Train. (The Florida East Coast Railway had become involved in the longest strike in labor history. Starting
January 23, 1963. On February 26, 1964 2 dynamite bombs derailed two freight trains in St. Augustine causing
extensive damage. Scab labor was used to keep the trains rolling.)
June 1 - (Secret tapes of LBJ - LBJ to George Smathers Monday, June 1, 1964, 2:48 P.M. LBJ: "What about
Saint Augustine? They're giving me unshirted hell on that, and we've called down and talked to the Governor,
and he says that he's watching it very carefully, but they say they're shooting into King's white-man's house down
there. This assistant to King, [Harry Boyte was the target of a murder attempt at a St. Augustine hotel.] and a lot
of trouble like that. He's demanding we go in. We talked to the Governor. He thinks he's got it. He's watching it,
pretty alert to it."
June 1 internal memo from Lee White about call to Dr. Martin Luther King about Federal protection for St.
Augustine protesters with follow-up to Department of Justice and Governor Bryant.
"If physical death is the price I must pay to free my white brothers and sisters from the permanent death of the
spirit, then nothing could be more redemptive." Dr. Martin Luther King - June 5, 1964
June 7 arsonists set fire to Kings beach cottage.
June 9 more than 200 persons marched downtown when violence broke out with whites attacking the white
demonstrators. The Monson Motor Lodge (recently torn down) was the focus of more protests and arrests.
Churches in town refused entrance to mixed groups. William Kunstler was the attorney for the civil rights groups.
Rev. Andrew Young and Jackie Robinson were also present. Judge Simpson told L. O. Davis that he could not
use sweat boxes or padded cells on the demonstrators at the county jail.
June 9 - Wyatt Walker from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference sends telegram to Lyndon Johnson
over security for Rev. King.
Statement by Governor Farris Bryant Issued June 10, 1964, Concerning Racial Disturbances in St.
“I have learned this morning of the Federal Court Order entered last night enjoining the local officials in St.
Augustine from interfering with night time demonstrations. I have asked the Attorney General to advise me as to
its legal implications. I will not condone violence on any scale and appropriate action has been taken to prevent
it. Sufficient state law enforcement officers are on hand to achieve this objective. I have called on the local
officials to exercise all diligence to insure that peace be maintained. I would not hesitate to exercise every power
available to me as Governor to insure that law and order prevail.”
June 10 Lee White telegram to Southern Christian Leadership Conference's Wyatt Walker on protection for
Rev. King in St. Augustine.
June 10 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr tells supporters at St. Mary's Missionary Baptist church that he would
participate in a sit-in at a motel restaurant the next day.
Letter from Robert Hayling and Dr. King to Lyndon Johnson about treatment of demonstrators and lack of
assistance from St. Augustine Police. (Letter)
State troopers arrive. (The White House and Governor Bryant talk about arrangements)
White House talks about resumption of night marches with Burke Marshall, head of Civil Rights Division for the
U. S. Department of Justice. (See internal memo)
Dr. King and Rev. Abernathy Arrested
June 11 Dr. King, Rev. Ralph Abernathy and Rev. Robert England among others were arrested at the Monson
Motor Lodge (jail photo) by Officer Everett Haney. (This was Dr. Kings' 12 arrest in the movement.) They
were given 10 day jail terms. Dr. King and Rev. Abernathy later moved to Jacksonville jail for safety. June 15
Governor Bryant issues an order for a "Special Police Force". The force included Florida Highway Patrol, State
Board of Conservation, State Beverage Department, Florida Sheriffs Bureau, Game and Freshwater Fish
Commission and investigators from the Governor's and Attorney Generals office. This state of martial law placed
the sheriff department and city police department under the control of the Special Police Force. Dr. Hayling,
Henry Twine and Roscoe Halyard spent weekend in DC for an AFL-CIO March to Washington monument for
passage of Civil Rights bill. Jackie Robinson addresses crowd at St. Paul's AME.
SCLC addresses Federal involvement (See memo of M. Carl Holman to William Taylor U. S. Civil Rights
(Letter from Lee White to Governor Bryant over drop in attendance at the Castillo.) (Letter from Lee White to
Dr. King and Dr Hayling over law enforcement)
Newspaper article (probably JET) looks at the arrest of Dr. King from a greater perspective.
Memorandum to LBJ from Douglass Cater about a request for Federal Marshals.
June 12 J. E. Stoner, Vice President candidate of the National State' Rights Party arrives from Atlanta."we're
not gonna be put in chains by no civil rights bill, now or any other time!"
June 13 White House talks with Rev. Wyatt Lee Walker, Executive Director of the Southern Christian
Leadership Conference (see memo)
June 17th march goes through white residential section ends up at the Monson Motor Lodge. The newspaper
protests this decision to allow demonstrators on private property in the late hours of the night.
St. Augustine Beach Wade-Ins
June 17 starts wade-ins in the segregated beaches with a two-hour 35 person wade-in. June 24th whites turned
away a group of about 30 people who attempted a wade-in. The beaches had already by law been
desegregated. Police had to protect the blacks trying to physically desegregate the beach. 300 whites marched
to Washington Street.
Monson Swimming Pool
Later on June 18 an incident occurred when the manager of the hotel placed an unknown substance in the
swimming pool water when an attempt was made to integrate the pool. The photo shot was seen around the
world. Henry Billitz an off-duty policeman jumps into pool to beat swimmers. The marches at St. Augustine set
the stage for the passage of the 1964 US Civil Rights Act. J. T. Johnson today.
June 18 Grand Jury calls on King and the SCLC to leave St. Augustine for one month to diffuse the situation.
The jury claimed that King and the SCLC had disrupted "racial harmony" in the city. King replied that the Grand
Jury's request was "an immoral one," "the Negro community (was asked) to give all, and the white community to
give nonthing....St. Augustine never had peaceful race relations."
June 19 march saw the arrests of Andrew Young, C. P. Vivian and Hosea Williams.
June 20 - King rejected a grand jury presentment called for immediate appointment of biracial committee as
basis for calling off demonstrations for 1 week. Grand Jury considered Kings actions since issuance to be
attempt at intimidation and refused to alter presentment.
First wade-in first wade-in at a whites-only beach Manucy's raiders followed them into the water until state
police finally intervened. Manucy complained: "I can't understand why any white citizen would want to protect
niggers against white people."
400 persons attend meeting in slave market. Don Cothran, Al Massey KKK from Jacksonville spoke and J. B.
White House in contact with Governor Bryant over order banning night demonstrations. (See Memo)
June 21 Demonstrators attempted to attend 11:00 services at churches. 6 blacks including an Episcopal minister
were taken into the Trinity Episcopal Church by the minister Charles Seymour after a confrontation outside with
members of the vestry.
A white male accompanied by 4 blacks attended the Catholic service. Efforts to enter the 1st Methodist Church
were repulsed. 3 blacks and one white were arrested at 11:0 service 11:50 3 more demonstrators were
arrested. All were charged with trespass with malicious intent, breach of peace and conspiracy.
June 21 In Mississippi three volunteers working for the Mississippi Freedom Project disappear. On June 23 J
Edgar Hoover would report that their car had been found burned out. He told Johnson that it was his opinion
that the three had been murdered.
June 22 22 arrests with wade-ins. 16 segregationists, 3 black males and 3 whites. During the night windows in
office of State senator Verle Pope were smashed. Pope had been attempting to act as mediator and form
biracial committee. Paul Hansen, photographer for Danish TV news was attacked and beaten while
photographing a demonstration.
June 22 - Memo over Governor Bryant's order to ban night time marching and Justice Department response.
June 24, Charles Lester Strickland arrested for throwing a cherry bomb.
June 25 had most serious rioting at St. Augustine Beach as a group of whites attacked 75 people during a wade-
in. Richard Cubbage, 19 years old, a white protester against integration had his head cracked open by police.
That evening 500 whites crashed through police lines and attacked demonstrators. Nineteen people were
hospitalized. St. Augustine Police Officer Chessley G. Smith was arrested by Florida Highway patrolman More
and Florida State Conservation officer R. Pierce on a charge of carrying a concealed weapon. (He was tried in
Judge Charles C. Mathis' court on July 14 and found not guilty. Officer Smith never took the witness stand.)
Charles B. Stanford was arrested for assault and battery on C. T. Vivian, leader of SCLC.
June 26 Commander H V. Gibson, Florida Conservation Dept. advised on June 25, 1964 that he had talked
with Halstead Manucy, Klan leader, in St. Augustine the night before in the plaza at St. Augustine. Gibson said
several of Manucy's "muscle men" surrounded him during the conversation and two of them bumped him slightly.
Gibson told them that if one of them laid a hand on him he would shoot Manucy. Manucy then reportedly called
off his men.
June 26 In a call to Lee White Dr. Martin Luther King looks for a way to "save face" in St. Augustine. Talk of
Harold Wolfe. Follow up calls with Governor Bryant and Senator Smathers. (See memo)
June 28 1 white and 4 negroes were turned away from the 1st Methodist on King St. Demonstrators were told
to leave by ushers. They refused and when St. Augustine police were reluctant to make arrests they knelt on
church property and prayed for about 10 minutes. Then they left without any arrests being made.
June 29 The Titan of the UFKKK at St. Augustine requested all klansmen who cannot participate in the "March
on Congress" to meet at the Old Slave Market, St. Augustine at 5:00 July 4th in Klan regalia for a peaceful
parade through downtown St. Augustine as a show of Klan strength.
Dr. Hayling and James Jackson were arrested and charged with contributing to the delinquency of a minor since
juveniles have been used in marches and other demonstrations. Hayling charged in 7 counts released on $2,300
bond. James Jackson held on one count and released on $300 bond.
Martin Luther King and John Gibson also have warrants. King surrendered at the courthouse and was released
on his signature (delinquency of a minor).
June 29 - Mrs. Malcolm Peabody's efforts to stop Hispanic participation in the 400th Anniversary celebration is
noted by Lee White, special counsel to President Lyndon Johnson to Hobart Taylor, special counsel to the
Presidents Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (see letter)
June 30 a truce is called after Governor Bryant appointed a (fictitious) biracial committee to study local racial
problems. St. Augustine businessmen stated that they would comply with the new Civil Rights Law expected to
take effect later in the week. Yoder was requested by Deputy Sheriff and two Manucy red necks to turn over
photographs of the officers who beat segregationists at beach. Photographer had equipment taken from him on
May 28 demonstration.
June 30 A telegram is received by Dr. Martin Luther King from The Organization of Afro-American Unity
Malcolm X chairman: "We have been witnessing with great concern the vicious attacks of the white races against
our poor defenseless people there in St. Augustine. If the Federal government will not send troops to your aid,
just say the word and we will immediately dispatch some of our brothers there to organize self defense units
among our people and the Klu Klus Klan will then receive a taste of its own medicine. The day of turning the
other cheek to those brute beasts is over."
June 30 White House had been looking for someone who may intervene with the St. Augustine City Council to
help from a biracial committee to reduce the tension. (Howard E. Wolfe's White House file)
July 1 - SCLC leadership leaves St. Augustine. Dr Shelley, the mayor of St. Augustine, had received a call
earlier from Mr. Howard E. Wolfe. He said that George Smathers called him up and said, "Lyndon Johnson, the
president, was very anxious to get this civil rights bill passed and signed and he wants it signed on the fourth of
July." This was around sometime in Jun, and he wants you to form a committee in st. Augustine, a bi-racial
committee, call Martin Luther King, and do anything he wants you to do. Cooperate with him so we can get this,
give King a victory. Well, Mr. Wolf called me up and asked me if I knew what they were talking about all of our
representatives in the legislature and Mr. Wolf told us what Senator Smathers had called him and talked to him
about and he also called Governor Bryant and Bryand had been in contact with Mr. Wolf. and we discussed
and kicked it around and I kicked the ball and said, 'Mr. Wolf, you've lived here all your life' and said 'This Civil
Rights Bill is going to be signed in the next, very week, two, couple of weeks.' We knew it was coming because
he told us. I said, "When that happens, all this is going to be finished,' and I said, 'Now you do this, you're going
to double-cross your friends in this community. You're going to see the community out to give Martin Luther
King the victory so he can go to any other community and say 'see what we did in St. Augustine, we can do it
any place else we want to..." (Dr. Joseph Shelley CRSTA 6, September 6, 1977 University of Florida -
Interviewer Dr. David Colburn)
U.S. Congress Passes the 1964 Civil Rights Act
The national focus of the King campaign was the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. This would end
discrimination within public accommodations. On June 19 the Senate passed the bill. The House of
Representatives passed the revised bill on July 2. The bill was signed by LBJ on the 2nd with Dr. Martin Luther
King at his side.
President Lyndon Johnson's Televised Address
From the address of the President upon the signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on Nationwide Radio and
Television in the East Room
“We believe that all men are created equal. Yet many are denied equal treatment. We believe that all men have
certain unalienable rights. Yet many Americans do not enjoy those rights. We believe that all men are entitled to
the blessing of liberty. Yet millions are being deprived of those blessing – not because of their own failures, but
because of the color of their skin.
The reasons are deeply embedded in history and tradition and the nature of man. We can understand—without
rancor or hatred—how this all happened.
But it cannot continue. Our Constitution, the foundation of our Republic, forbids it. The principles of our freedom
forbid it. Morality forbids it. And the law I will sign tonight forbids it.
Let us close the springs of racial poison. Let us pray for wise and understanding hearts. Let us lay aside
irrelevant differences and make our Nation whole. Let us hasten that day when our unmeasured strength and our
unbounded spirit will be free to do the great works ordained for this Nation by the just and wise God who is the
Father of us all.”
July 4 the KKK march with about 150 people and 75 of those wearing robes. Few spectators and no incidents.
More violence. July 5 five negroes including a woman and a child were fishing off Vilano Bridge. They were
attacked by a group of 7 to 12 white youths, one of them using a bicycle chain. Two of the Negroes went
injured one was hospitalized. One was under indictment in connection with shooting of William Kincaid.
July 9 Alonzo Manucy also known as "Bubba" nephew of Halstead picketed the Monson Motor Lodge carrying
a sign "Niggers ate and slept here, would you?" The motel manager, James Brock, was told by Stone that Stone
was in charge of the picketing. Brock asked him why he was being picketed since he accepted Negro guests
only when forced to comply with Federal law. Stoner replied, "We're just trying to get you some nigger
business." Stoner added they planned to picket all integrated St. Augustine establishments.
July 14 Henry Twine attacked with iron bars in front of a motel. July 17 to 24 KKK rallies were held at the City
Baking Company on State Road 207.
July 15 Lee G. White to President Lyndon Johnson - Testing to begin on Civil Rights Law. Rumors that Martin
Luther King would head the testing.
July 16 Teams of negroes sponsored by the SCLC tested eating facilities in St. Augustine. 27 restaurants were
tested and teams were turned away from all except 3. Suits were filed against Rustys and Santa Maria.
July 17 At Pappy's Seafood Restaurant victims got out of car and were immediately charged by seven or eight
July 20 Conversation with Governor Bryant over number of troopers in St. Augustine and attempts to integrate
reservation (Internal Memorandum)
On July 24 Stoner, Lynch, Paul Cochran of Jacksonville and Barton Griffin of Jacksonville were arrested for
burning cross without permission. Bill Coleman was arrested for cross burning and wearing a hood.
2 Molotov cocktails were thrown through window of Monson Motor Lodge Dinning Room causing $3000
July 28 Holstead "Hoss" Manucy took the 5th 33 times in a case about 15 food establishments and motels
refusing to integrate.
August 5 a injunction was placed from Judge Simpson barring Hoss Manucy and the Ancient City Gun Club
from discouraging integration by any threat or action.
August 14 Flagler Hospital ordered to integrate.
August 19 Judge Simpson found motel manager William Chew and Deputy Sheriff Charles Lance, Jr., in
contempt of court for refusing to rent a motel room to blacks and for following them in their car. Lance was
ordered to turn in his badge or resign his commission from the sheriff's force within twenty days.
August 20 Palms Congress Inn William and Johnnie Chew were found guilty of contempt.
August 23, 1964 a newly formed Citizens Council met at Holiday Inn where William Chew became president.
August 26 Charles Allen Lingo a white field worker for the S.C.LC. was attacked and injured at the St.
Augustine Beach. Charles Lingo and Arthur Funderberk filed civil action for $20,000 damages against Sheriff L.
O. Davis for failure to protect them from being beaten at St. Augustine Beach.
October 1 Rev. Seymour resigns from Trinity Episcopal and accepts a position at Trinity Episcopal Church in
New Orleans. Rev. Stanley Bullock took over as priest at Trinity Episcopal in St. Augustine.
December 3 Ketterlinus Jr. High - 8th grader assaulted on playground by a white man who struck child with fist
knocking him to the ground.
Creating the Myth
By June the Federal Courts had taken over much to the protests of local citizens. The St. Augustine Record in a
September 27 front page story talks about "the lash of federal judicial infringement on the rights of citizens and
the constitutional powers of local and state courts." Over 500 cases involving Civil Rights protests were moved
to the Jacksonville Federal Court of Judge Simpson. The claim was that they could not get a fair trial in St. Johns
October 23 Jerome Godwin and Hoss Manucy arrested and jailed for failing to turn over names of the Ancient
City Gun Club. Manucy had taken the 5th Amendment thirty-three times.
March 22, 1964 Mayor Shelley had submitted a statement in response to the information being distributed by
the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He disputed any public segregation. The only places that were
segregated were private businesses. He stated that police protection was adequate and that the first shooting
incident would have been prevented had "certain Negro citizens cooperated with the police department."
On November 19, 1964 Charles P. Barrier, the City Manager, gave a statement about the disturbances. He
blamed the earlier picketing on two full time NAACP Field Directors, Willie Luden of Savannah and James
Brown of Tifton, Georgia. He blamed the national news media for working with Dr. King and publicizing the visit
of Mrs. Malcolm Peabody. He blamed the special police force created by the governor for problems because:
"it seemed to us that this Special Police force had been given instructions to leave the negroes alone, but arrest
all the white people they could."
January 7, 1965 A. H. Tebault, Jr., Editor of the St. Augustine Record, gives his review. He blames the
troubles on national publicity. The Federal Court was the most single detriment to local and state law
enforcement in the keeping of the peace. Outside agitators such as Mrs. Malcolm Peabody and Martin Luther
King were part of the stage play by the Southern Leadership Conference and the National Council of Churches.
March 17, 1965 Virgil Stuart, Chief of Police, City of St. Augustine sends his comments on the "Racial Agitation
in St. Augustine" to a Florida Legislative Committee reviewing the recent events. He marginalizes Dr. Hayling as
a person who led a group of "young negro trouble makers" or "hoodlum followers". The National Council of
Churches was blamed for the Easter invasion on 1964. He indicated that the youthful disturbances began when
"young teen-age white girls began to show up dating and mixing socially with negro male students from Florida
Memorial College." The national press was responsible because it staged Hollywood Productions." Martin
Luther King "plotted" to bring thousands of participants from other states. He stated "potash and battery acid
were used against the police officers by the marchers with hypodermic syringes and plastic containers such as
cleaning fluid, etc. He was also upset about the Governor creating a Special Police Force which resulted in the
arrest of a City Police Officer "for no good reason" who was then placed in the county jail.
April 22, 1965 11:00 Service Ancient City Baptist Church and Grace refused admission to black teenagers.
July 8, 1965 A wick was placed under the 100 gallon gasoline tank of Mrs. Plummer Secretary SCLC.
August 26, 1965 Dr. Hayling still threatening to demonstrate at the 400th St. Augustine Celebration. White
House still trying to determine its policy. (See memos) (Federal Government options)
The state commission drew its own conclusions. It highlighted that the Florida Memorial College assured the
Southern Christian Leadership Conference of "a ready and enthusiastic supply of pickets and demonstrators
who already had gained considerable experience during the summer of 1963." The school would later move to
Miami. National news media was to blame. Physical violence against the demonstrators were provoked by
"imported young white girls strolling through the Plaza arm in arm with Negroes or imported white men escorting
Negro women." Judge Simpson was to blame for the violence.
When laws are bad they should be respected but until repealed they are the law and are worthy of the
same respect and obedience as all other laws. State Commission
Go to St. Augustine Rebounds June 21 In Mississippi three volunteers working for the Mississippi Freedom
Project disappear. On June 23 J Edgar Hoover would report that their car had been found burned out. He told
Johnson that it was his opinion that the three had been murdered.
Florida Memory Project
|Dr. King and Rev. Abernathy
|Dr. Robert Hayling
|Hoss Manucy Quotes:
"We're not tied to the Klan in any way though I'm not knocking the Klan. It's a
"A nigger can't make a living without a white man, he has to go North where
the welfare checks are bigger."
"There's no white men scared of a nigger. That's a proven fact in St. Johns
The Eugene-Register Guard - July 1, 1964
"My boys are here to fight niggers, Martin Luther King? He's a nigger. He's an
outside nigger and we don't put up with outside niggers in St. Augustine. He's a
Communist. That's a proven fact." Harpers Magazine
|Lyndon Johnson Speaking on St. George Street
|A. H. Tebeault, Jr. Vestryman of Trinity Episcopal Church (and editor of
the St. Augustine Record: "Well, we're at an impasse because it (Clergy
must enforce entrance of African Americans to the Church) won't
happen. I must decide between being an American or an Episcopalian."
|If you're serious about understanding
Civil Rights in St. Augustine, this is a
foundation book. Put it on your must
|Andrew Young: "When you have one man, wearing civilian clothes, beating
you while another, wearing a badge, stands waiting to arrest you when the first
one gets tire, well, that makes you think. St. Augustine is really worse than
Birmingham. It's the worst I've ever seen."
St. Augustine Marches around the Slave Market
|President John F. Kennedy
|President Lyndon Banes Johnson
|signing of 1964 Civil Rights Bill by President Johnson
|The tension produced by this confrontation between civil rights demonstrators and
the Klan operating on both sides of the law is palpable, inescapable to the visitor.
Many local businessmen have begun to carry pistols routinely, and the day before
I arrived a housewife had almost her whole knee blown off when a loaded shotgun
being carried in the family car went off accidentally. The temper of the white
community borders on hysteria. In a claim that covers some bloody ground
indeed, Martin Luther King has called St. Augustine "the most lawless city I've
George McMillan in "The Klan Scourges Old St. Augustine" Life Magazine June
St. Augustine Chief of Police around demonstrators
|Dr. Martin Luther King and Rev. Ralph Abernathy being arrested with
Virgil Stuart, Chief of St. Augustine Police
|Dr. Martin Luther King, Rev. Ralph Abernathy and Brock
|J. B. Stoner
|Stoner Manucy, Lynch
|"If I had known what I know now about this town, I doubt if I would
have come here. Man, these Negroes were really violent. We had to
go around the community and knock on each door and convince the
people that violence begets violence and we couldn't win that way."
|Martin Luther King speaking about St. Augustine in 1964:
"Even if we do not get all we should, movements such as this tend more and more
to give a Negro the sense of self-respect that he needs. It tends to generate
courage in Negroes outside the movement. It brings intangible results outside the
community where it is carried out. There is a hardening of attitudes in situations like
this. But other cities see and say: "We don't want to be another Albany or
Birmingham, and they make changes. Some communities, like this one, had to
bear the cross."
|Like us on
|St. Augustine of Hippo
|Beginning in 1954 with the Supreme Court’s historic decision in the Brown
Case, the three branches of the Federal Government have taken affirmative
legal action to provide “equal protection” to all Americans. by means of
various judicial decisions, Executive Orders and Acts of Congress, equal
protection guarantees have been extended to citizens in the fields of education,
federal employment (direct and indirect), voting rights, public
accommodations, public facilities, housing and employment.
In order to implement these guarantees the federal government has become
involved in a wide range of activities in the area of civil rights, which may be
categorized as follows:
a. Primary Civil Rights Agencies
1. U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1957 by Civil Rights Act of 1957
2. President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (PCEEO),
1961, Executive Order 10925
3. President’s Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing (PCEOH),
1962 Executive Order 11063
4. Community Relations Service (CRS) 1964, Civil Rights Act of 1964
5. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 1964/65 Civil
Rights Act of 1964
6. President’s Council on Equal Opportunity (PCEO) 1965, Executive
b. The “Secondary” Civil Rights Agencies
1. Department of Justice, with regard to the functions of the Assistant
Attorney General for Civil Rights (1957)
2. Department of Commerce, with regard to its responsibilities under Title
VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
3. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, with regard to functions
of the Commissioner of Education under Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of
c. In-House Responsibilities of all Agencies
1. Equal Employment Opportunity
2. Contract Compliance
3. Non-discrimination in Federal programs (Title VI of the 1964 Civil