Green Cove Springs
Clay County, Florida

St. Johns River
Green Cove Springs was developed in 1816 by George E. Clarke when he built a sawmill. In 1854 it started as White
Sulfur Springs until it was renamed in 1866 as Green Cove Springs. It was the Clay County seat in 1871.  The spring
was known as "The Original Fountain of Youth."  The 1895 freeze destroyed the citrus crops in the area. The city grew
in World War II with the opening and expansion of the Naval Air Station Lee Field (in honor of Ensign Benjamin Lee killed
in an air crash in World War I.)

In 1991 Green Cove Springs had a U. S. Historic district created bounded by Bay Street, CSX RR tracts, Center Street,
Orange Avenue, St. Elmo Street and St. Johns Road. It contains 78 historic buildings and one structure.

George N. Bardin - he was born in Duval county on May 20, 1849 the son of William S. and Jane (Tippens) Bardin. His
father was in the Seminole War as a scout for Captain Dade. He escaped the massacre by being on a scouting
expedition. In the Civil War he was made an orderly sergeant. George Bardin was too young to join but with a party of
boys he attacked a U. S. Army post on Black Creek killing several of the sentinels. He was declared a murderer by the
United States government and a cavalry company was sent by the United States government to capture him, but he
escaped into the swamps. His father had him enlisted as a scout in the Confederate army.

After the war he work in the sawmill and lumber business. He served as constable for one year and as deputy sheriff for
four years. For six years he was a justice of the peace. He was an alderman of Green Cover Springs for one term and
the mayor of Green Cove for three terms. He was the clerk of the circuit court and the tax assessor. In 1895 he was
appointed a county judge to fill an expired term and in 1896-89 he was elected justice of peace. From 1899 he was
elected as a county judge.

He married April 13, 1871 to Josephine Gay. They had seven children. He died in 1907. His wife died in 1950. He was
buried in Old Hickory Grove Cemetery in Green Cove Springs.

Union House - Green Cove Spring Florida. on the St. John's River (St. Augustine Examiner, February 2, 1867)
The undersigned having completed her new and commodious House, had now opened the same to the public as a first
class hotel.

Parties, whether alone or accompanied by their families seeking the warm and gentle climate of Florida, on the St.
John's will find all the comforts of a home at this house.

The rooms are large and airy, and are carpeted and the furniture new and complete. The House contains over fifty
room. On the East and South sides there are ten suits of rooms expressly for families.

This House is situated within a few hundred feet of the celebrated "White Sulphur Spring"  (formerly known as the
Magnolia Spring.) distance from
Jacksonville about thirty miles. All the Steamers stop at that place, as they pass up and
down the river.

Having removed from St. Augustine to the above House, the patronage of my old friends is respectfully solicited and that
of as many now seem as may be pleased to call on me.

Mrs. S. A. Eaton.

1869 (From Snow to Sun Florida Winter Pleasure Tours Pennsylvania Railroad)
In 1869 the hotels included the Green Cove House, by Mr. J. Remington, and boarding houses run by Captain
Henderson, and Captain Glinskie. The fare was about $15.00 per week.

The spring was long celebrated for its mineral properties. It is sulfurous, and has been found of value in chronic
rheumatism, cutaneous disease and dyspepsia. The water temperature was 78 degrees F at all seasons. The basin
varies in diameter from 35 to 40 feet at different points. The water rushes up with force forming what is called a "boil."
Recently a portion of the bottom of the spring gave way, and the orifice through which the water rises was covered. But
the earth was cleared out, and the "boil" re-instated. Facilities for bathing were afforded.

A Winter in Florida by Ledyard Bill, 1869
This is the first village after Jacksonville, and the only considerable place between it and Palatka, a distance of one
hundred miles (round numbers). More than a score of well-dressed people are standing on the end of the pier, awaiting
our arrival: and full that number land with piles of baggage, looking quite as though they had come to stay; and this is
likely, for here the tourist and invalid find extra attractions as the name would indicate. There is a healthful and charming
spring here, where all may bathe and frequent, without money or price. The village is scattered along and back from the
banks, in a somewhat straggling manner, with not over thirty dwellings; yet you feel their influence and companionship,
and this drives off the blues, and is certainly an advantage to the invalid as also the traveler.

The accommodations for guests are quiet ample; though, if they were greater, they would not stand idle. We know of
quite a number, who, coming in on the steamer, were informed that all rooms were filled, and were obliged to re-embark
and seek some less frequented place. There is a large hotel here, The Union House, kept by Mrs. Eaton, though
nominally in charge of Mr. Remington, a Northern man. This house will receive comfortably about fifty guests. It is large
and airy, but shockingly needs a coat of paint and some repairs, and also more prompt attention to guests, to make it
more welcome as a home. Still, it does very nicely; and doubtless it is the intention of the owner to introduce the
suggested improvements by another season. There is also a large boarding-house near the spring, whose proprietor
has such an odd foreign name that it quite escapes us. His house accommodates twenty. Then a few private families
open their houses and receive guests. Capt. Henry Henderson and his warm-hearted companion never turn any away if
they have any sort of accommodations for them. Their house is not large, but it covers a great many people. Capt.
Henderson is a favorite with the visitors. His extensive acquaintance with, and long experience in the State, have given
him a vast fund of information and anecdote with which he beguiles the evening hours,---the center of attentive circles.
Everybody knows him among the natives; and he is much respected and esteemed by them as a man of spotless
integrity and honor. He is a native of St. Lawrence County, New York, and has been in Florida forty-five years: he is now
seventy-three years of age, yet he boats of his ability to "take his horse and hund with any of the boys." He enjoys a
social game of euchre; and scarce an evening, when not interesting some one with his wild and fascinating adventures,
he might be found seated with Tompkins of Stony Point, Merrill of Vermont, and Hughes of Ohio, each trying to outdo
the other in friendly strife. The captain is hale and heartily still.

Our home in this village was with the family of P. R. Coleman of Orange County, New York. He has been in the State but
a couple of years. He came out alone, afflicted with chronic rheumatism; but settling at this point, by systematic bathing
and copious drinking of the pleasant waters of the spring here, he claims to be entirely cured: certainly he has now a
fresh and vigorous appearance. Deciding to settle here, he sent for his family; and with them we found a comfortable
home. Mrs. Coleman, a most amiable lady, brought with her what many people can never carry, for obvious reasons, the
perfect art of housekeeping as known in our best Northern homes. Should this family remain at Green Cove, we feel
bound to assure all who are so fortunate as to find lodgings under their roof, that they need borrow no trouble or anxiety
as to their comfort while they remain.

The price of board varies from ten to fifteen dollars per week. By the day, at the hotel, it is three dollars; at the private
houses, two dollars.

Fresh fish, venison, and fowl grace the tables in this village, and can usually be had in abundance.

The river is, in fact full of every kind of fish, and on its surface float nearly all kinds of waterfowl; while the woods afford
an abundance of game and wild animals, of which we shall more fully treat in some succeeding chapter.

The spring is the attraction at Green Cove, distant not over ten rods from the river, and double that from the principal
hotel. It is owned, as are most of the village lots, by two parties,--- Mrs. Ferris and a Mr. Palmer at Jacksonville; who
being opposed to improvements, and seemingly to every enterprise as well as to their own interests, suffer the spring to
remain surrounded by a clump of wild trees, which, however, serves a good purpose in screening bathers; yet it is not to
the interest of the villagers to have affairs continue in their present unimproved state. The spring has scooped for itself
a bed, twenty by fifty feet, and lies some ten feet below the surrounding level. It flows freely from its fountainhead into
this spacious reservoir, of an average of five feet in depth, and then runs rapidly off to the river. The water is at a
temperature of, we should judge, about seventy-five degrees, very pleasant, and thoroughly unharmful to drink. It bursts
up with considerable force, and clear as crystal. It has a slight sulfurous taste, and leaves slight traces of the same
mineral on the sides of the spring. Both magnesia and iron ore, we think, held in solution. Everyone spoke in high praise
of this spring-water, both as a drink and for bathing uses; for the latter of which, regular hours are assigned to the
different sexes. A dozen or more rude yet convenient dressing-houses surround it.

County Seat
Green Cove Springs became the county seat of Clay County in 1871. Clay county was named after Senator Henry Clay,
the Great Compromiser, a Whig Senator from Kentucky and a U. S. Presidential candidate.

The Great South by Edward King (1875)
Throughout the winter months these health-resorts have the climate of Indian summer, and at Green Cove Spring, just
above Magnolia, where there are sulphur waters of peculiar healing virtues in rheumatism and dyspepsia, a goodly
company usually assembles with the first advent of "the season."

Florida It's Scenery, Climate, and History by Sidney Lanier, 1876
Three miles beyond [Magnolia], on the same side, is Green Cove Springs, one of the most popular winter-resorts on
the  river. The springs, with the Clarendon Hotel adjoining, are but a short distance from the river-bank. Connected with
this hotel are hot and cold baths, and swimming-baths, of the spring-waters. These waters contain sulphates of
magnesia and lime, chlorides of sodium and iron, and sulphured hydrogen, and have a temperature of 76 degrees F.
They are used for the cure of rheumatism, gout, Bright's disease of the kidneys, and such affections. Besides the
Clarendon, the Union House, a charmingly-located hotel, offers accommodations to visitors; and there are good private
boarding-houses.

Green Cove Springs & Melrose Railroad
Green Cove Springs & Melrose Railroad was incorporated on February 28, 1881 to build from Green Cove Springs to
Melrose on Lake Santa Fe, 15 miles east of Gainesville. J. C. Greely of Jacksonville headed the original management
and got the railroad to Sharon (10 miles from Green Cove Springs. The railroad was foreclosed and reorganized as the
Green Cove & Midland Railroad. The Western Railway of Florida was organized on July 26, 1886 to build the rest of the
line to Melrose. Dexter Hunter of Jacksonville, President of Western, completed the line to Melrose of 33.5 miles in 1890.
The railroad had a lumber spur running 10 miles south from Sharon. The railroad had 3 locomotives and 34 cars. The
railway had one passenger train daily. On June 6, 1892 the Western Railway and the Green Cove & Midland were sold
under foreclosure. It reopened as the Southwestern Railroad of Florida. The railroad operated until mid-1896, when it
was shut down. It was abandoned in 1899.

The Visit to Green Cove Springs  (the Express News, Vol IX, 1884)
En-route the boat landed at Green Cove Spring, a charming winter resort on the west bank of the St. Johns. The entire
party, headed by the Government Band, proceeded to the springs, a short distance from the pier and spent a few
minutes in viewing the famous springs and the magnificent surrounding scenery.

Green Cove Springs is one of the springs for which
Ponce de Leon made search.

This spring is situated in a park near the landing, in the center of the village. Water boils from a fissure some twenty feet
below the surface at the rate of three thousand gallons per minute. It is clear, and when the sunshine falls upon it, the
objects in the basin are tinged with prismatic colors.

Imagine a pool of running water, pure as the air you breathe, and more translucent--a pool fringed about with bananas
and palmettos, canopied by magnolia leaves. Such is a mid-winter picture of the swimming pools at Green Cove.

Handbook of Florida (Norton, 1890)
Population 1,200. Twenty-nine miles from Jacksonville, twenty-seven miles from Palatka.
Hotels - Clare, $3 to $4 a day; Clarendon, $4 a day; Morganza, $1.50 to $2 a day; St. Clair, $3 to $4; The Pines, $3 a
day. Also several smaller hotels and boarding-houses.
Railroads and Steamboats. Several trains north and south daily by J., T. & K. W. Ry. All the St. Johns River steamboats
touch at this landing.

This town has been for many years a place of considerable resort, owing to its fine sulphur springs, and the natural
advantages of its situation. Even as seen from the windows of a passing train its attractions are evident, for
considerable labor has been expended in laying out streets, fencing off parks with massive pine logs, and removing
evidences of recent clearings.

A short walk or ride from the station brings the visitor to Magnolia Avenue, the business street of the place. A short
distance farther is the great spring, which discharges three thousand gallons of water every minute, at a temperature of
78 degrees F., the year round. The wonderful purity of the water, its green, mysterious depths, reflections and colors
are a source of never-ending pleasure. The water is slightly impregnated with sulphur, but loses it by evaporation after a
short exposure to the air. Excellent bathing arrangements have been provided, and comfortable rustic seats are found
at almost every turn. Borden Park, including about five acres lies along the river on high ground with its native growth of
magnolia, live oak, and palmetto, the rubbish only having been cleared away. It is private property, but open to the
public, though a quaint inscription posted at the entrance may properly prove discouraging to vandals. Much ingenuity
has been displayed in the adaption of natural tree trunks for fences, gate-posts, tree-seats, and the like. On the river
bank, and projecting out over the water, is a tree said to have been used as a lookout by the Seminoles during their
wars, for this was one of their permanent camps. Beyond the park a fascinating foot-path extends far along the river
side and across Governor's Creek to Magnolia, one of the pleasantest resorts on the St. John's.

Green Cove Springs contains many charming winter residences, some of them surrounded with carefully tended
gardens full of horticultural rarities, and most attractive to visitors from a colder climate.

The town itself contains churches of all the leading denominations, schools, stores, livery stables, tramways. Excursions
may be made by boat up the river as far as Palatka, or down as far as Jacksonville, returning by boat or rail the same
day, and on both sides of the river there are many points of interest easily within reach.

1891 (From Snow to Sun Florida Winter Pleasure Tours Pennsylvania Railroad)
GREEN COVE SPRINGS.
29 miles by rail or boat, reached via Western Railway of Florida or Jacksonville,
Tampa and Key West Railway.

The wonderful Sulphur Spring, discharging 3000 gallons of water a minute, from which the place takes its name, is
located in a handsome grove of live oaks draped with Spanish moss, in the midst of a wide expanse of surrounding pine
forests. The grounds are attractively laid out in romantic walks and parks. The bathing pools are extensive, and the
baths are commended not only to invalids but to all who enjoy a plunge into limpid and pellucid waters. Think of bathing
in open air in December, and yet this is a common everyday enjoyment here. Governor's Creek is very close by, and its
romantic windings present pictures of rare natural beauty while offering excellent boating facilities. Its transportation
facilities are excellent. Three large piers jutting out into the St. John's afford convenient access to sea-going vessels
and river craft of every kind, and no more fascinating scene could well be imagined than the light and shadow effects on
water and land as the health-restoring sun sinks down after its faithful day's duty), leaving a wake of golden light on this
beautiful winter resort. Excursions may be made by boat from here to Palatka.

PRINCIPAL HOTELS.
Clarendon Hotel . . . . $4.00 per day. Riverside House, |2. 00 to $2.50 per day.
Morganza Hotel, $2.50 to $3.00 per day. St. Clair Hotel . $3.00 to $4.00 per day.
Oakland Hotel . $2.00 to $2.50 per day.

1899 (Pennsylvania Railroad Tours to Florida 1899)
GREEN COVE SPRINGS.
30 miles from Jacksonville, via Tropical Trunk Line; also reached via boat.

The wonderful Sulphur Spring, discharging three thousand gallons of water a minute, from which the place takes
its name, is located in a handsome grove of live oaks draped with Spanish moss, in the midst of wide magnolia forests.
The grounds are attractively laid out in romantic walks and parks. The bathing pools are extensive, and the baths
are commended not only to invalids but to all who enjoy a good plunge. Open-air bathing in December is a common
everyday enjoyment.

The romantic St. David's walk extends northward along the shore two miles through the forest to Magnolia and
its fine hotel. Excursions may be made by boat from here to Palatka.

Principal hotels.
Clarendon Hotel.
Oakland Hotel.
St. Clair Hotel.
Morganza Hotel.
Riverside House.
Hotel St. Elmo.

A Guide to Florida (1912)
Green Cove Springs (30 m. from Jacksonville) the next landing has a sulphur and chalybeate spring of surpassing
beauty. The waters bubble or rather rush up from a depth of forty feet discharging thousands of gallons daily. temp. 78
degrees. It has been famous as a curative Spa since the time Florida was ceded to the United States by the Spaniards.
Bath houses and hotels have existed here continuously, and it has recorded as its guests people of distinction from
every part of the world. The springs of Florida, while of the same general character, are distinct in kind. Each one has
some peculiar charm of its own. A monograph should be written on them, setting out the water's properties, and those
greatest of all features should be emphasized, their peculiarly appropriate locations and the fostering climatic conditions
that are so helpful in promoting the invalid's recovery. There has always been a swimming pool here, and the taking of
the waters has been supplemented by the taking to them. There are fine roads in the neighborhood for motoring, driving
and riding, the last, a favorite pastime in the long stretches of beautiful pine woods. Shooting and good fresh water
fishing are in easy reach. Tennis courts, and croquet grounds are provided and the new golf links is easy of access and
very satisfactory. The Quisisana Casino is a very attractive building, of an architecture eminently suited to the climate, a
modified Moorish or Moro-Spanish type. It is fitted with every modern improvement and the swimming baths and pool is
most attractive. The A. C. L. R. R. has a station here.

                                    Places to Stay in Green Cove Springs 1912

Hotel Quisisisana
; capacity, 200; rates - per day, $4.00 up, per week, special.

Tyler House, Mrs. J. W. Lucas; capacity, 30 rates - per day, $2.00, per week $10.00

Mohawk, Mrs. C. W. Tyler; capacity, 30; rates - per day, $2.00, per week, special.

Riverside Hotel, Mrs. M. Hancock; rates per day, $2.00, per week, special.

Florida (WPA, 1939)
Green Cove Springs (28 alt., 1719 pop.), seat of Clay County, is a small resort centered around a spring that flows
3,000 gallons a minute, impounded to form a large swimming pool. Residents obtain fresh water from the spring every
day, believing it loses its medicinal qualities and strength.

Green Cove Springs was a fashionable spa in the late 1870's and 80's. Steamers from Charleston and Savannah came
up the St. Johns River and landed passengers at the resort piers. Band concerts were held daily during winter months.
President Grover Cleveland (1885-89) and well-to-do northerners came annually. Gail Borden, condensed milk
manufacturer, and J. C. Penney, chain-store magnate, bought property here and took an active part in the development
of the town. Penny also established a farm colony 6 miles to the west.

With the coming of railroads and the development of resorts farther south, the village lost most of its out-of-state
patronage, but continues to attract visitors from various parts of Florida. Fishermen find black bass plentiful in the
brackish waters of the St. Johns.

Augusta Savage, distinguished Negro sculptress, lived here in her childhood When she was five years old, her father, a
Methodist minister, chastised her for 'making graven images.' Now a resident of New York City, she has gained
international recognition for her figures of whites and Negroes.

Naval Air Station Green Cove Springs (Lee Field)
In 1940 the U. S. Navy opened Naval Air Station Lee Field in honor of Ensign Benjamin Lee who died in an air crash in
World War I. In August 1943 it was renamed Naval Air Station Green Cove Springs (Lee Field) where four runways were
maintained. After the World War II it was home to a Mothball Fleet of 600 vessels. In 1960 the base was
decommissioned.
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