Congressional Report
History of the Bureau of Freedmen and Refugees
March 10, 1868
Page 7
Congressional Records
1. Col. John Eaton, Jr.- (December 5, 1829  - February 9, 1906) Eaton was born in Sutton, New
Hampshire,[1] and attended Thetford Academy in Vermont. He graduated from Dartmouth College in
1854. He was the principal of a school in Cleveland, Ohio and superintendent of schools in Toledo,
Ohio (1856-9) studied at Andover Theological Seminary, and was ordained in 1862 to the
Presbyterian ministry.

He entered the army as chaplain of the 27th Ohio Volunteer Infantry. In October,1863, he was
appointed colonel of the 63rd U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment, and received his brevet of
brigadier-general in March., 1865. In November, 1862 he became the General Superintendent of
Freedmen in Department of Tennessee and the state of Arkansas.

He received his Ph.D degree from Rutgers in 1872, and his LL.D. from Dartmouth in 1876. He settled
in Tennessee, became editor of the
Memphis Post, and was elected State superintendent of public
schools in 1886. He was appointed U.S. commissioner of education in 1870, and served in that
capacity until August, 1886, when he became president of Marietta College, at Marietta, Ohio.

General Lorenzo Thomas - (October 26, 1804 - March 2, 1875) Lorenzo Thomas was born in
Newcastle, Delaware. Thomas graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1823, and was
commissioned a second lieutenant in the 4th U.S. Infantry. He fought in the Seminole War in Florida,
Served: in garrison at Cantonment Clinch, Fla., 1824,  and at Ft. St. Marks, Fla., 1824; in constructing
Military Road to St. Augustine, Fla., 1824-25; in garrison at Cantonment Clinch, Fla., 1825; in Creek
Nation, Ga., 1825-26; in garrison at Cantonment Clinch, Fla., 1826, 1827-28; as Adjutant, 4th
Infantry, at Regimental headquarters, Mar. 1, 1828, to Feb. 15, 1831; on Recruiting service, 1831-33.
General's Office at Washington, D. C., June 5, 1833, to Sep. 3, 1836; in the Florida War, 1836-37,
doing Quartermaster duty; in the Quartermaster-

During the Mexican-American War, he was the chief of staff to General William O. Butler. He received
a brevet promotion to lieutenant colonel for Monterrey. From 1853 to 1861, he served as chief of staff
to the commanding general of the U.S. Army, Winfield Scott.

He was promoted to brigadier general on May 7. Camp Thomas, a Regular Army training base in
Columbus, Ohio, was named in his honor in July 1861. He held the position of adjutant general until he
retired in 1869, except for a special assignment to recruit African-American troops in the Military
Division of the Mississippi from 1863 to 1865. The Adjutant General, US Army, in the War
Department, was the chief administrative officer for the Army.

On February 21, 1868, President Johnson attempted to replace Stanton by appointing Thomas as
Secretary of War
ad interim. Stanton had Thomas arrested for violating the Tenure of Office Act.
Thomas retired from the Army on February 22, 1869 (reaching the age of 62 years), ten days before
Johnson left office. He died on March 2, 1875 in Washington D.C. and is buried in Oak Hill Cemetery
in Washington, DC. Fort Thomas, a military post established in Arizona Territory in 1876, was named
for Thomas.

3. During the two years following the close of the war hundreds of indigent blacks and whites called
upon the Bureau for food. 92,191 rations were given between June 1st, 1865, and May 1st, 1866.
Note the closing report above and the number of rations still being given out at the end of the major
phase of the bureau.

4. See Col Osborn's
Circular No. 2 for Florida's early administrative process on rations. (See also
Ration Request for Fernandina Area March 1866)

5. See
General Saxton's Order No. 5 for information about Medical structure.

United States Treasury, Col John Eaton, Jr, Brevet Major General L. Thomas, Adjutant General of the
Army, Secretary of War
General Lorenzo Thomas
Department of the South
Port Royal Experiment
USCT Bounties
Freedmen's Aid Societies
Bureau Educational Activities
Freedmen Bureau Education
Assorted Documents
Freedmen's Bureau Table of
Freedmen's Bureau Assorted
Previous Page
Next Page
Custom Search