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School News from Carlisle Barracks,
School News  Vol 1 No. 1  Carlisle Barracks, June 1880
This afternoon June 10th Miss Semple went down to Hampton to visit the Hampton school
children. Miss Mather went too and Mrs. Pratt. They will stay only one day at Hampton.

School News Vol 1 No 2  Carlisle Barracks, July 1880
About ten boys are learning how to sing bass. Every evening they went in the Chapel to sing base.
Miss Mather is teaching them how to sing bass.

School News Vol 1 No. 5 Carlisle Barracks, October 1880
Cpt. Pratt and Miss Mather went to Dakota Territory to get some more Sioux children.

Vol 1 No. 7 Carlisle Barracks, December, 1880
Experiences of H. C. Roman Nose.

I will now endeavor to tell of my experiences and travels from the time I was taken to Florida up
to the present day.

It is very warm weather at the South, in winter time it is not very cold and they have no snowing
there. I often judge by Florida and St. Augustine, because I had commenced to find good friends
there all the white people in St. Augustine. When we staid there, some time thy told us they were
very sorry and felt our hearts sadness. But Capt. R. H. Pratt helped us to support our sad hearts
and took us away from all sadness and bad thoughts and sinners. He can show to us our hearts
properly and he s anxious to make Indian men do right and guide them in the right way and he
taught them all about the good ways o the whites. We promise to listen to Capt. R. H. Pratt to
what is said. They stayed in prison there three years and we had no school, but Capt. Pratt
showed us A B C and now we understand these letters, we did not know how to spell anything. It
is not bad we stayed in prison three years there. But just they have certainly been much benefited,
we stayed together in Fort Marion the white people call Indians Florida boys. Capt Pratt had two
small boats for Indians to go out on the ocean hunting birds and fishing they caught very large sea
fishes. Sometimes we rode in sail boat beyond St. Augustine about eighteen or twenty miles to
camp, hunt and fish and swim in the ocean, we lived in tents like soldiers, we made bows and
arrows and we were seeking for sea beans near ocean beach and we obtained lots of them and
brought them to Fort Marion and we polished them and after necessary polishing, we sold them
and bows and arrows also, and we drew Indian pictures for the white people who visited Fort
Marion and they bought sea beans bows and arrows and pictures. Indians sold sea beans each at
twenty five cents and bows and arrows one dollar and a half. Some two dollars and a half and
best bows and arrows for five dollars. I commenced to learn how to row a boat there and some
Florida boys learned very well. All the Florida boys commenced to learn to say Capt Pratt when
we anxious something to buy went in Capt. Pratt’s office and asked him if we could go down
town to St. Augustine and he would say all right and he wold give them the pass to St. Augustine.

(to be continued)

Vol 1, No 8 Carlisle Barracks January 1881
Capt Pratt supported all the Florida boys in St. Augustine and he procured for the Indians
everything. All the Indians were very glad and we like Capt. Pratt very much because he is a great
good man and his heart is weight. They had meeting in Ft. Marion every Monday evening to pray
to God to guide us in the right way. We had very pleasant time the 4th of July in St. Augustine also
in the middle of the winter we had more jolly times at Christmas day we had shooting with bows
and arrows the best shoot received three dollars and a half and some of them foot racing and who
beat running got three dollar and a half. Capt. Pratt taught me, and I kept persevering and
remember what he taught me in St. Augustine After three years twenty-two young men desired to
be educated at Normal Institute, at Hampton Virginia and some went to school Syracuse New
York, and some of them in Tarrytown N. Y. then came a Hampton boat to St. Augustine and all
the Florida boys went on steam-boat and went to Hampton Normal School. Two Kiowa boys
and I stayed in St. Augustine. Then after a while we rode in the cars and we came to a very small
town and we took steam-boat to Jacksonville and stopped there all night. Then in the morning we
went on steam-boat to Savannah and arrived there at about six o’clock a.m. and we stayed one
or three hours, we then took another large steam-boat for New York and crossed the Atlantic
Ocean three nights and three days we traveled on the ocean. I couldn’t see any land where I
looked to the south and east and west. I thought the steam-boat would drop beneath the waves
but it did not drop. I was scared very much and I was very sea sick on the ocean. I layed down
all the time and I did not eat breakfasts, dinners or suppers. W arrived at New York City at about
six o'clock and we go out and went in carriage and go to Depot and we stayed there a few
minutes. Then we rode in the cars and go up the Hudson river and reached Tarrytown in the night
and we rode in carriage to Dr. Caruther’s house and sat down around table we ate supper. That
time I was very lazy because I had been very sea sick and felt very tired. After a few days I got
strong again and well. I thought that perhaps I never was to see Capt. Pratt again but after a
month he arrived at Tarrytown to see those three boys who was there. I was much pleased to see
him once again and he stayed with us only one day, he said to us he would visit Hampton and see
more of the Florida boys that was in Normal School, before he went away, he wanted me to write
to him and after he went away I wrote him a letter.
(to be continued)

The School News Vol 1 Carlisle Barracks February 1881 Number 9

Experiences of H. C. Roman Nose
He didn’t reply to my letter and I did not hear from him but he went out west and when came
back to Washington then he obtained my letter and he replied immediately and said in his letter, he
wanted me and the other boys to go to Hampton School but I didn’t like to go to Hampton I
wanted to stayed at Tarrytown New York. I started to Hampton and we arrived at New York
city a.m. and saw a great many of the white people in New York, we had a very pleasant time just
the same as the 4th of July 1878, at Dr. Deems house we had dinner who is my friend, then after
dinner I had to shake hands with him and also his family and I bid them good-bye. Then we went
in steamer an stayed a little while, then the steamer left at half past three o’clock p.m. one night
and one day we went on the ocean we arrived at Norfork near five o’clock p.m.

We took another steamer and went to Hampton, we arrived at the Fort in the night we went in
carriage to Hampton, about mile and a half from the Fort by permission we went through the
cornfield and Capt. Pratt told us that this field and the other fields were all worked in by the
Florida boys plowing and hoeing every day. We arrived at General Armstong'’ house and got out
of the carriage and went to where the Florida boys stayed in two houses. I was very much
delighted to see my Florida friends again and we shook hands with them all. Then we went into
the room and stayed all together and they told me all about what they had been doing at Hampton
Institute. We said that is very hard toiling every day. We had hard work all the summer, learning
how to work on the farm. The Normal School opened at Hampton on the first of October. Then
we went to school every morning and after-noon and learned some thing every day and we
worked very hard two days, in a a week Friday and Saturday. One of the Koiwa boys learned
very fast his names is “Kieshcoly, his English name is Hunting Boy the rest of the Florida boys
didn’t learn very fast. The reason that didn’t learn more rapidly was because some of them was
too old to learn we studied hard there one year and learned some thing every day in the spring.
Capt. Pratt took several boys and went to Washington and saw President Hays he said he was
very glad to see those boys, we stayed several days at the Smithsonian Institute and then returned
to Hampton Virginia and at the desire of apt. Pratt and General Armstrong twelve of the Florida
boys went to a small town called Lee in the state of Massachussetts. We

Left Hampton after dinner and walked to the Fort to where the oat stopped and waited there
about one hour and then took the steam-boat to Norfork, we arrived there about half past 4 o’
clock p. m. (to be continued)

The School News Vol 1 Carlisle Barracks March1881 Number 10

Experiences of H. . Roman Nose.
We then took another steamer for New York where we arrived safely. Capt Romayn went with
the boys to Norfork and when we got out there he said to the boys, Capt. Pratt will meet you in
New York, after we shook hands and bid him good-bye, he said, boys I hope all of you will have
a good time where you are journeying. Then he returned to Hampton Normal Institute. In the night
at about one o’clock, we took the steamer for New York and after one day and one night on the
ocean traveling, we reached New York, some of the boys were very sea-sick and I too. Capt.
Pratt met us in steamboat and he said, boys you sleep in boat until morning and I will come back
for you, he came very early next morning and called the boys to get up and get ready to start to a
restaurant to get some breakfast, then we took a walk to Grand Central Depot and took the train
to Lee, we arrived at Lee at half past two p.m.  We got out and went in carriage to different
places. We stayed there all summer and learned mowing with scythe and milking and churning
butter and worked every day for months and in October 1879 we left Le and arrived here at
Carlisle Barracks we saw the Sioux boys and girls had to wear Indian clothes the Florida boys did
not like that kind of clothes it looked like wild Indian people who had learned nothing but just play
every day and night and punishing each other and fighting with sticks and hurting their bodies, but
Capt. Pratt threw away old Indian clothes and he gave them new white man’s clothes and assisted
them very patiently to make the boys and girls of different tribes go one way that is the right way
the white man’s way. Now we are following the white man’s way and endeavoring to get
education and do something useful and teach the red men avoid temptation. First I did not know
anything about the white man’s ways. I am very happy now that I can be useful polite and love
God, I do not say I am always polite and good because I don’t know sometimes when bad
thoughts comes or sin. God will keep us from sin and he will aid us in the right way and I pray that
he will Bless all our  Race and show them their error and at last lead us with the white man’s good
way is the prayer of    Henry C. Roman Nose.

The School News Vol II Carlisle Barracks August 1881 Number 3
Miss Semple came back on 13th. All teachers and children glad to see her.

The School News Vol II Carlisle Barracks November 1881 Number 6
Rosa Ross and Joshua are learning to be teachers and Miss Semple is showing them. We hope
both of them will be good teachers. Joshua’s tribe wants a teacher very much, so we are all glad
that he is learning to be a teacher so he can do some good to his people.

EADLE KEATAH TOH.  Vol II Indian Training School, Carlisle, PA Sept 1881 No. 2
About Three of the “Florida Boys.”

Oaker-hate, or Making Medicine, a Cheyenne, Zotom, a Kiowa, and Ta-a-way-ite, a
Comanche, were among the prisoners confined for three years in the old Fort of San Marco, in
Florida. In the Spring of 1878 a lady from Syracuse saw the Indians at St. Augustine, and offered
to take four of them to the North for further education, in the hope tat they could be fitted for
future missionary work among their people. These three men—representing three tribes—with
one other who died a year ago, were placed in her charge, taken to Syracuse, and soon after
established in the family of a clergyman of the Episcopal Church at Paris Hill, New York, for
education and training in agriculture work.

…..When thoroughly prepared for it, they were for it, they were baptize by Bishop Huntington,
and admitted soon after to the Lord’s Table; and after careful and satisfactory examination by two
clergymen on the principles of the Christian religion, and in their knowledge of the Bible and
Prayer Book, on the 7th day of last June, two of them David Pendleton Oake-hater, and Paul
Carl Zotom, were admitted by Bishop Huntington to the Diaconate, or the lowest order of the
ministry in the Church.

At another time we may be able to narrate something special of the work of Paul and Henry. We
are sure that all at Carlisle will wish these Florida prisoners God speed in their good work, and we
hope that the Cheyennes, Kiowas and Comaches in the school will be stimulated by these facts
we have told to harder and more faithful work that they may be prepared the sooner to go home
and help forward the work of civilizing and christianizing their people.

School Room work.

The text books used are Picture Teaching, Webb’s Model Readers, Franklin’s Arithmetic,
Swinton’s Geography, Hooker’s Child’s Book of Nature, and Knox and Whitney’s Elementary
Language Lessons.  

No books are used with beginners. The materials employed are objects, pictures, the blackboard
slate and pencil.

Tone-ke-uh is a perfect failure. I have tried him at everything, but he breaks down and goes off of
his own accord, unable to forego the cherished allurements of indolent camp life. I rarely ever see
him now wearing coat or pants, but usually wrapped up in a sheet, much soiled, and seems to
have no ambition beyond it.

O-het-toint has done better than any of the four, though at times he is ready to take a step
backwards, and needs a paternal, watchful and sustaining hand to urge him forward and up to his
best capabilities.  Last year I gave him a room in the school as teacher, and he did well.

Zo-tom, ….. ghost dance

Ta-a-way-ite, Comanche, who returned here with Zo-tom, showed much courage and strength at
first, and strong hopes were felt that he would continue as a good example, and become a leading
man whom his people would respect and follow, but there seems to be a falling off from the
standard and lately even the kind words and warm personal efforts of Mr. Wicks almost fail to
make an impression.

Cheyenne and Araphoe Agency Ind Terr, Sept 28, 1881
Roman Nose is just the same. No signs of a relapse.

Eadle Keatah Toh – Big Morning Star Vol II No 4
All of the 2 Florida prisoner who remained North after their release from Saint Augustine have
now returned to their homes. Three, educated by Mr. Wicks, of Syracuse, N. Y., in his own
family, are devoting themselves to earnest missionary work among their people. The stand taken
by most of the others who spent two or three years at Carlisle and Hampton, is eminently

Minimic’s Prayer
Among the Indian prisoners confined in the old fort at St. Augustine, Florida, was one whose  
manner won the admiration, if not the affection of the frequent visitors. Many times I have heard
the remark “Minimic is a native-born gentleman.” Yet he was an Indian, had fought against the
whites, and was a believer in the incantations of the Medicine Men. But a new light was sent into
the darkened minds of the Indian prisoners. Minimic saw, believed, and followed this light, even
after he returned to his old home in the Indian Territory

Last spring he was very sick, and when able to be about again, one Sunday attended a Christian
service, and was asked by the missionary who conducted the meeting if he would not say a few
words or pray.

Minimic arose from his seat and speaking in his own language, his expressive face and eloquent
gestures made his words very effective. This was what he said: “I have been very sick; I thought I
was going to die I said to my wife, bring me the good book which was given to me in Florida; put
it under my head, now I feel better. Soon I felt that was not enough, so I said to my wife, make
the fire brighter, help me up, now hold the book open before me that I may look at the words in it.
The light from the fire shone on the words in that book ---Jesus’ book, I call it--- and the good
words that I had been told were in this Jesus’ came into my mind, and I prayed to understand
them. Then I layed down again on my bed and put the book open on my forehead and I felt that I
did understand what Jesus wanted.”

Then bowing head, he reverently said “Let us pray.” One petition of his prayer was that “God
would make his heart larger, yes very large,” and in his earnestness he extended his arms in a
circle before him, then paused, and there was perfect silence for a minute, then arose this rich
pleas, “and fill it full of love for Jesus. Amen.”

Our genial old friend has since died, and up there, in that throng, among prophets and kings, he
enjoys the promise of God.

Vol II No 5 Dec 1881
One of our boys who has learned his trade and returned to his home in the Territory, Henry C
Roman Nose writes, “I am going to tell you what I was doing last Saturday. I got marry a very
sure nice girl. She is very gentle and polite and kindly, but I am very sorry she do not talk English,
and do not understand anything about the white man’s ways. But I am trying to teach her about
the white road.”

EADLE KEATAH TOH Big Morning Star Vol II No 6 Jan 1882
(The letter, extracts from which are given below, is from one of the Florida boys, who has been
with friends in the North since his release from prison, but is spending the winter in Florida for his
health :”

St. Augustine January 17th 1882.
My Dear Capt. Pratt:  --- I received your letter, and am glad to have it, and to hear about
Etahdleuh that his throat trouble is so much better. I was anxious, for I was afraid that his palate
was affected and he might get worse. But, oh, how blessed a thing to hear he can be cured and
will be well again.

It is too bad that I am so unfaithful about many things. I wanted to answer your letter very soon,
but my own pleasures too strong for me, and cannot do for them first others easily which most
important to men. I would like to take trouble to perform your wishes, and I hope you will always
excuse me if I cannot do them as soon as I want to; because you know my hindrances, and the
burden of sickness which does not easily allow me to do many things I ought to do. I like a clock
that does not keep good time, but loses it and runs not regularly.

I am acquainted a little with one or tow of the officers and the surgeon, Dr _ Lieutenant
___________ , this last one, I admire and esteem on account of his rank as an officer; but most
of all I respect him because he seems to care about God’s words and to attend where he will hear
them; for every time I go to church or meeting, he will surely be there among God’s people, and I
think from this he certainly must be respectable and worthy, and just the same exactly as another
officer who speaks friendly to me, but his name I do not know. Lieut. ________ has invited me to
visit him, and Dr. ______________ also

A week ago we took a pleasant sail to Moultrie.

Six dos came down to the landing to meet us, and a colored woman who had a baby in her arms
named Abraham Lincoln.

Rev. Dr. Root came to see me just before Christmas. He wanted me to come to the church and
speak when they had the tree, but the weather was rainy and I coughing, and my two judges
decided for me not to go., Afterwards Mr. Munson brought me a nice stylographic pen that was
on the tree for me. It was an anonymous present. I am sorry I did could not go to speak when
Mrs. Root wanted me; but I did not feel able to do so and speak loud enough.

I went to
Dr. Anderson’s grove and saw more oranges than I ever saw before --- some of them
monstrous. I was curious to know how big and I measured one and it was thirteen and a-half
inches round!

But I ought to stop now, my dear friend Captain, or you will think my letter four miles instead of
four pages long. All of us send our love. I got pretty tried in writing all day long, and I got plenty
more to say, but too little room. You know Indians never have room enough. My pen and ink are
tired and worn out, and I am tired, and I guess you are most tired of all, so I am only say I am our
faithful friend,

Paul C. Tsait Kopeta

* **

School was founded September 1879

Pratt was the Superintendent from September 1879 till July 1904

The Indian Industrial School Carlisle Pennsylvania
Its Origin, Purposes, Progress and the Difficulties Surmounted by
Brig. Gen R. H. Pratt

Written for, Printed and Circulated by the Hamilton Library Association Carlisle, PA.

In the spring of 1869 General Grant pronounced his first inaugural and in it gave his conception of
the nation’s duty to the Indians in the following words:

“The proper treatment of the original occupants of this land—the Indians—is one deserving of the
most careful study. I will favor any course towards them which tends to their civilization and
ultimate citizenship.”

The officer at once adopted this as his platform and never in his long career of dealing with the
Indians did he waver from it. …… and to hold many of them as prisoners of war in irons, and to
deport a company of seventy-four of their leaders so shackled thousands of miles from their
homes and families and keep them in confinement for three years.

…Though prisoners of war under his care at old
Fort Marion, Saint Augustine, Florida, in the year
1875-8, there was school for all of them, there was daily training in industries to earn money and
to make them thrifty. There was constant opportunity and encouragement for them to meet
multitudes of our own people under kindliest auspices. He organized the younger men into a
company, gave them guns, sent the soldier guard away and for two years and nine months they
guarded themselves and the fort without committing a single breach against the discipline
established.  The three years of imprisonment resulted in English speaking, in the adoption of
civilized dress and habits and in  a hungering on their part for a career in the larger life of the nation.

…Such was the effect upon them of these influences that when heir three years of imprisonment
ended, twenty-two of the younger men of their own free will asked to remain east three years
longer, provided they could have larger school and training opportunities.

….until finally Hampton Institute, Virginia, a normal training school for colored youth, opened its
portals for seventeen, and the other five were provided for near Utica and in Tarrytown in New
York state.

…At the suggestion of the officer the number at Hampton was increased by fifty youth of both
sexes who were brought by him and his wife from their homes along the Missouri river,

…. One of the teachers of  a class of Indian prisoners in Florida was a Miss Mather, who before
the war had carried on a young ladies’ school in the old town of Saint Augustine. She wrote that if
an opportunity offered she wold like to see the Indians in their western homes. When the order
was received in Washington on the 6th of September, the officer telegraphed her in Florida that he
would leave on the 10th of September for Dakota to bring in children and asked her to go along
to look after the girls. She arrived in due time, and they proceeded to Dakota with instructions  to
get thirty-six from Rosebud agency, which was then dominated by Chief Spotted Tail, and thirty-
six from Pine Ridge agency, whose principal chief was Red Cloud.

…On arrival at Rosebud the officer fund that the agent had already received the order from the
Indian office, and at a council had submitted it to the Indians, and they had resolved not to send

The chiefs and principal Indians, about forty, were summoned to the agency, and the officer, with
the interpreter and Miss Mather, went with them into the council house. He explained the plans
and purposes of the proposed school and urged the Indians to withdraw their opposition and send
their children.

The interpreter, Miss Mather and I walked over and sat on the agent’s porch for more than an
hour before the council broke up. When the Indians came outside they stood for quite a while in
front of the council house talking and looking our way; finally, Spotted Tail, Two Strike, White
Thunder and Milk, the principal chiefs whom I had spoken to personally, came over and sat down
without any demonstration. They kept talking to each other in an undertone, and looked me over
critically. After a few moments Spotted Tail got up, came and shook hands with me, then with
Miss Mather and the interpreter, and said:

It is all right…..

Before starting for Dakota I had sent two of the Florida party, a Kiowa named Etadleuh,, and a
Cheyenne named Okahaton, to their respective agencies to makeup parties of students for
Carlisle. In a week things were in such running order that I could leave the care of the pupils in the
hands of Mrs. Pratt and several helpers I had employed, among them the principal teacher, Miss
Semple, the girls’ matron, Miss Hyde, and the principal of the Sewing Department Mrs.
Worthington… and I went west to Wichita in southern Kansas with Miss Mather, where I had
instructed the young men to bring their parties of students.

The second party reached Carlisle in time to open school on the 1st of November, 1879.
Richard Henry Pratt
Superintendent of Carlisle Indian School
Henry Roman Nose 1st Row 3rd from left
David Pendleton Oakerhater